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Table of Contents
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



FORM 10-K


ý

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the year ended December 31, 2019

OR

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                                to                               

Commission File Number 001-36464



Agile Therapeutics, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  23-2936302
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

101 Poor Farm Road
Princeton, New Jersey 08540

(Address including zip code of principal executive offices)

(609) 683-1880
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

         Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class   Trading Symbol(s)   Name of exchange on which registered:
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share   AGRX   The Nasdaq Capital Market

         Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None



         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer ý   Smaller reporting company ý

Emerging growth company o

         If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

         Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No ý

         The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 28, 2019 was approximately $52.1 million.

         As of February 18, 2020, there were 69,810,305 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

         Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for its 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the "Proxy Statement"), to be filed within 120 days of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

   


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Agile Therapeutics, Inc.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2019

Table of Contents

 
   
  Page  

PART I

       

Item 1.

 

Business

    3  

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

    35  

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

    78  

Item 2.

 

Properties

    78  

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

    78  

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

    78  


PART II


 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

    79  

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

    80  

Item 7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

    82  

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

    99  

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

    100  

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

    128  

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

    128  

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

    129  


PART III


 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

    130  

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

    130  

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

    130  

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

    130  

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

    130  


PART IV


 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

    131  

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

    133  

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SPECIAL CAUTIONARY NOTICE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes statements that are, or may be deemed, "forward-looking statements." In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms "believes," "estimates," "anticipates," "expects," "plans," "intends," "may," "designed," "could," "might," "will," "should," "approximately" or, in each case, their negative or other variations thereon or comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. They appear in a number of places throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K and include statements regarding our current intentions, beliefs, projections, outlook, analyses or current expectations concerning, among other things, our ongoing and planned manufacturing and commercialization of Twirla®, the potential market uptake of Twirla® and the development of our potential product candidates, the strength and breadth of our intellectual property, our ongoing and planned clinical trials, the timing of and our ability to make regulatory filings and obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our potential product candidates, the legal and regulatory landscape impacting our business, the degree of clinical utility of our products, particularly in specific patient populations, expectations regarding clinical trial data, our development and validation of manufacturing capabilities, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects, growth and strategies, the length of time that we will be able to continue to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditures, our expected financing needs and sources of financing, the industry in which we operate and the trends that may affect the industry or us.

        By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events, competitive dynamics, and healthcare, regulatory and scientific developments and depend on the economic circumstances that may or may not occur in the future or may occur on longer or shorter timelines than anticipated. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, even if our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods.

        Some of the factors that we believe could cause actual results to differ from those anticipated or predicted include:

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        Any forward-looking statements that we make in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speak only as of the date of such statement, and we undertake no obligation to update such statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. You should also read carefully the factors described in the "Risk Factors" section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to better understand the risks and uncertainties inherent in our business and underlying any forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard any of these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified timeframe, or at all.

        This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes statistical and other industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. While we believe these industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies are reliable, we have not independently verified such data.

        We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. In addition, with respect to all of our forward-looking statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.

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Item 1.    Business Overview

Overview

        We are a women's healthcare company dedicated to fulfilling the unmet health needs of today's women. Twirla® and our potential product candidates are designed to provide women with contraceptive options that offer greater convenience and facilitate compliance. Twirla, our first and only approved product, is a once-weekly prescription combination hormonal contraceptive patch. Twirla is designed using our proprietary transdermal patch technology, called Skinfusion®, designed with properties to optimize patch adhesion and patient wearability, which may help support compliance while, for the first time in a contraceptive patch, delivering a dose of estrogen consistent with commonly prescribed combined hormonal contraceptives, or CHCs. We believe there is an unmet market need for a contraceptive patch that is designed to deliver approximately 30 mcg of estrogen and 120 mcg of progestin in a convenient dosage form that may support compliance in a non-invasive fashion.

        Twirla was approved for sale in the United States on February 14, 2020 as a method of contraception for use in women of reproductive potential with a body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2 for whom a combined hormonal contraceptive is appropriate. Based on the observed relationship between efficacy and BMI in a Phase 3 clinical trial, Twirla's limitation of use instructs healthcare providers to consider Twirla's reduced effectiveness in women with a BMI ³ 25 to <30 kg/m2 before prescribing. Twirla is contraindicated in women with a BMI ³ 30 kg/m2 because compared to women with a lower BMI, women in this group had reduced effectiveness and may have a higher risk for VTEs.

        As part of Twirla's approval, the FDA is requiring us to conduct a long-term prospective, observational post-marketing study comparing the risks for VTE and ATE in new users of Twirla to new users of other CHCs. The FDA's requirement for Twirla is similar to another post-marketing study requirement for a recently approved CHC. The final study report for the Twirla post-marketing study is scheduled to be submitted to the FDA in November 2032, with interim safety data reporting to the FDA due in November 2026. We have also agreed to a small post-marketing commitment PMC study to assess the residual drug content and strength of Twirla. The PMC study is similar to residual drug studies requested of patch developers in the FDA's November 2019 draft guidance entitled Transdermal and Topical Delivery Systems—Product Development and Quality Considerations. We are evaluating the design and cost of these post-marketing studies. With the approval of Twirla we now plan to focus on our transition from a clinical development stage company to a commercial company. During 2020, we plan to begin the implementation of our commercialization plan for Twirla and to manage the growth of our company. Our near-term plan for the commercialization of Twirla includes:

Activity   Expected Timing
Initiate coverage and reimbursement activities in the United States from third-party payors   First Quarter 2020

Initiate hiring of contract sales force

 

Second Quarter 2020

Complete pre-validation and validation of the commercial manufacturing process consistent with our approved marketing application

 

Second Half 2020 with first shipment of product anticipated in the Fourth Quarter 2020

Our Strategy

        Our short-term goal is to establish an initial franchise in the multi-billion-dollar U.S. hormonal contraceptive market built on approval of Twirla in the U.S. Our resources are currently focused on the commercialization of Twirla. To that end, our goal is to begin the pre-validation and validation of the

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commercial manufacturing process in the first half of 2020, manufacture three validation batches of Twirla and complete the validation process in the second half of 2020. At the same time, we will prepare for the availability of commercial product supply. In the first quarter of 2020, we plan to initiate work with managed care and patient payors to gain market access for Twirla. In the second quarter of 2020, we plan to begin hiring and training an initial sales team, which we estimate to be in the range of 70 to 100 persons. We intend to ship product to wholesalers in the fourth quarter of 2020. During 2020, we also expect to begin planning the buildout of our existing pipeline and explore other opportunities to add additional products to our business.

        Our current priorities are as follows:

Twirla

        Twirla is our first and only approved product, indicated as a method of contraception for use in women of reproductive potential with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 for whom a combined hormonal contraceptive is appropriate. Based on the reduced efficacy seen with increasing BMI in a Phase 3 clinical trial, Twirla's limitation of use instructs healthcare providers to consider Twirla's reduced effectiveness in women with a BMI ³ 25 to <30 kg/m2 before prescribing. Twirla is contraindicated in women with a BMI ³ 30 kg/m2 because compared to women with a lower BMI, women in this group had reduced effectiveness and may have a higher risk for VTEs.

        Twirla is a prescription combined hormonal contraceptive, or CHC, patch that contains the active ingredients ethinyl estradiol, or EE, which is a synthetic estrogen, and levonorgestrel, or LNG, which is a type of progestin, both of which have an established history of efficacy and safety in currently marketed combination oral contraceptives. Twirla delivers approximately 30 micrograms of EE per day, a dose of EE consistent with the dose delivered by many commonly prescribed oral contraceptives. Our Skinfusion technology allows Twirla to be the first approved patch capable of delivering a contraceptive dose of LNG across the skin. The patch is applied once weekly for three weeks, followed by a week without a patch. Twirla is packaged with three individually wrapped patches per carton to provide for one 28-day cycle of therapy.

        Twirla is designed for convenient application by patients as a method of contraception. By delivering active ingredients over seven days, in a comfortable, convenient and easy-to-use weekly patch, Twirla is designed around principals of ease of use, which may support enhanced patient compliance. It is also designed with properties to optimize patch adhesion and patient wearability with low levels of skin irritation. The patch is round and made of a soft, flexible fabric, designed to flex with the movement of a woman's body. Twirla is a matrix patch consisting of several layers of material that contain the active ingredients EE and LNG, as well as the inactive ingredients Dimethylsulfoxide, Ethyl

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Lactate, Capric Acid and Lauryl Lactate, which are ingredients to assist in the transport of EE and LNG across the skin, and adhesives that enable adherence to the skin. The final top layer is the one seen when placed on the skin, and consists of a thin, cloth-like material consisting only of adhesive. There is a barrier formed between the inner portion of the patch, which contains the active ingredients, and the outer portion of the patch, which only contains the adhesive. This barrier is intended to prevent the active and inactive ingredients from migrating to the peripheral portion of the patch and breaking down the adhesive there. Twirla is also designed to help prevent seepage of the adhesives from around the edge of the patch where it could collect dirt and leave a sticky black ring on the skin. The five layers of the patch are integrated to create a patch that has a slim profile and is unobtrusive when applied.

GRAPHIC

Twirla Marketing Authorization

        Twirla received FDA approval on February14, 2020 as a method of contraception for use in women of reproductive potential with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 for whom a combined hormonal contraceptive is appropriate. Based on the reduced efficacy seen with increasing BMI, Twirla's limitation of use instructs healthcare providers to consider Twirla's reduced effectiveness in women with a BMI ³ 25 to <30 kg/m2 before prescribing. Twirla is contraindicated in women with a BMI ³ 30 kg/m2 because compared to women with a lower BMI, women in this group had reduced effectiveness and may have a higher risk for VTEs.

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Pregnancy Rates (Estimated*) in Twirla-Treated Patients as BMI Increases for Women £35 Years of Age in Study ATI-CL23

GRAPHIC


*
The solid line displays the estimated pregnancy rate, and the shaded area displays the 95% confidence interval for the estimated pregnancy rate.

        Twirla's approval is primarily based on safety and efficacy data from the Phase 3 SECURE trial. Because the Twirla NDA was submitted under Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and we relied, in part, on the FDA's findings of safety and efficacy from investigations for approved products containing EE and LNG and published scientific literature for which we have not obtained a right of reference, we were not required to conduct preclinical studies.

        The SECURE trial was a multicenter, single-arm, open-label, 13-cycle trial that evaluated the safety, efficacy and tolerability of Twirla in 2,032 healthy women, aged 18 and over, at 102 experienced investigative sites across the United States. The trial was designed in consultation with the FDA, and incorporated a number of stringent trial design elements, including exclusion of treatment cycles not only for use of back-up contraception but also for lack of sexual activity. SECURE had broad entry criteria, placed no limitations on body mass index, or BMI, or other demographic factors during enrollment, and enrolled a large and diverse population from the United States in order to allow for efficacy to be assessed across different groups. These entry criteria resulted in the inclusion of a substantial number of women with high BMI, who have frequently been under-represented in past contraceptive studies. The efficacy measure for SECURE was the Pearl Index in an intent-to-treat population of subjects 35 years of age and under. The FDA also requested inclusion of pre-specified efficacy analyses related to BMI and body weight.

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        As part of Twirla's approval, the FDA is requiring us to conduct a long-term prospective, observational post-marketing study comparing the risks for VTE and ATE in new users of Twirla to new users of other CHCs. The FDA's requirement for Twirla is similar to another post-marketing study requirement for a recently approved CHC. The final study report for the Twirla post-marketing study is scheduled to be submitted to the FDA in November 2032, with interim safety data reporting to the FDA due in November 2026. We have also agreed to a post-marketing commitment, or PMC, study to assess the residual drug content and strength of Twirla in a minimum of 25 women. The PMC study is similar to residual drug studies requested of patch developers in the FDA's November 2019 draft guidance entitled Transdermal and Topical Delivery Systems—Product Development and Quality Considerations. We are evaluating the design and cost of these post-marketing studies.

Contraceptive Landscape and Market Opportunity

U.S. Hormonal Contraceptive Market Background

        Contraceptive methods, other than sterilization, can be divided into non-hormonal and hormonal alternatives. Examples of non-hormonal products available in the United States include the diaphragm, male condom, female condom, and non-hormonal intrauterine device, or IUD. Hormonal contraceptives containing both estrogen and a progestin are referred to as CHCs, and contraceptives containing only progestin are referred to as P-only. There are several categories of hormonal contraception products available in the United States, including:

        The U.S. hormonal contraceptive market is a multi-billion-dollar market. Data from 2011 to 2013 from the Centers for Disease Control, or CDC, indicate that approximately 28% of women aged 15 to 44 use some form of hormonal contraception, which amounts to approximately 17 million U.S. women. The CHC portion of the market, which includes pills, two transdermal patches, including Twirla, and two vaginal rings, generates significantly greater prescription volume and sales compared to the P-only portion of the market, consisting of IUDs, injectables, implants, and P-only pills.

        The U.S. hormonal contraceptive market is a mature market, with many branded and generic products available. Since the mid-2000s, CHC market growth as measured by prescription volume (TRx) has been flat to declining, with the exception of a 4.8% increase in 2013 compared to 2012. In the past three years (2017-2019), while CHC TRx growth has appeared to decline more aggressively (by 6%-12% per year), we believe this is largely due to an increase in the average TRx size (i.e. number of contraceptive cycles dispensed per TRx), which has increased from 1.4 cycles/TRx in 2016 to 1.7 cycles/TRx in 2019. The total cycles dispensed in 2018 and 2019 has remained relatively stable reflecting the continued flat growth of this mature market. While gross sales were relatively flat between 2014 and 2018 due to a lack of new product entries and increased generic competition for both the total hormonal contraceptive market and the CHC market, CHC market sales grew by 5.9% in 2019 vs. 2018 to a total of $4.1 billion, largely due to price increases.

        We believe there are several possible factors primarily affecting prescription volume in the contraceptive market. According to U.S. Census Bureau data and projections, the population of women

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aged 15 to 44 years has been growing at a rate of approximately 0.3% to 0.9% per year since 2011, increasing this population by approximately 200,000 to 580,000 women per year.

GRAPHIC


Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2017 National Dataset (2016 is base population estimate for projections).

        Additionally, in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Healthcare and Education Reconciliation Act, or collectively, the ACA, was signed into law, which, among other things, requires all health plans, with limited exceptions, to cover certain preventive services for women with no cost-sharing, which means no deductible, no co-insurance and no co-payments by the patient, effective August 1, 2012. These services include those set forth in the Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services, or HRSA Guidelines, and adopted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration. Contraceptive methods and counseling, including all FDA approved contraceptive methods as prescribed, are included in the HRSA Guidelines. Since these new ACA provisions went into effect in August 2012, quarterly prescription volume growth for the CHC market rose from negative growth year-on-year to positive growth between 4.0% and 5.0% for each of the six quarters following implementation. However, this appears to be a one-time phenomenon, as the market volume growth has been relatively flat since 2014, with the exception of a one-time drop in TRx cycles dispensed in 2017.

        During the period following enactment of the ACA, generic oral contraceptive volume has shown the greatest growth, primarily at the expense of branded oral contraceptives. This is likely due to the policies that were implemented by many managed care plans, which generally only provided generic oral contraceptives with no cost-sharing to the patient. The effect on non-oral products is less clear, but volume for the vaginal ring showed a 6.8% decline from 2015 to 2019, while the prescription volume for the patch increased by 31% over the same time period. In May 2015, several government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, the Department of Labor, or DOL, and the U.S. Department of Treasury, or Treasury, jointly issued a clarification in the form of an FAQ which clarified the requirements for coverage of contraceptives under the ACA. The FAQ states

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that plans and issuers must cover without cost-sharing at least one form of contraception in each of the 18 current methods that the FDA has identified for women in its current Birth Control Guide. The patch is identified as a specific method in the FDA Birth Control Guide, and therefore insurers must cover at least one patch product with no cost-sharing to the patient.

        Despite the availability of generic contraceptives for over 25 years, branded products have maintained a significant, though declining, share of CHC sales. Branded contraceptives in the CHC market have driven significant increases in the value of branded total prescriptions, or TRx. In the five years ended December 2019, the average annual price increase among the top branded products was 10.5%. The average price per cycle, referred to as the wholesale acquisition cost, or WAC, for a single 28-day cycle of the top branded products was $41.53 in 2006 and rose to $160.88 by December 2019. As of October 2014, the branded CHC transdermal patch (Ortho Evra) has been discontinued, and the generic CHC transdermal patch (Xulane) is currently priced at $122.15 per cycle. The other non-oral form of CHC, the vaginal ring, is currently priced at $162.63 per cycle. We cannot predict whether the manufacturers of branded products will continue to increase prices going forward. We have not yet set a WAC price for Twirla, but we believe we will be able to set one that is comparable to other branded and branded generic CHC products at the time of launch.

Contraceptive Pills

        Based on 2014 data from the CDC, of women who choose to use a hormonal contraceptive, approximately 64% use a contraceptive pill, vaginal ring or patch, the majority of whom use the contraceptive pill. The remaining 36% of women using hormonal contraception are split between using injectables, implants, or IUDs. Based on this information, we believe that contraceptive pills are the most popular choice because:

        However, compliance remains a significant draw-back with pills. Published studies have shown that the average woman who uses oral contraceptives misses approximately two to four pills per month, which increases the potential for unintended pregnancies. We believe that a patch can offer greater convenience than a pill, as it does not require daily administration and, for certain women, could lead to greater compliance and ease of use.

Contraceptive Patch Market Experience

        The Ortho Evra® contraceptive patch, or Evra, was introduced in early 2002 and was the first FDA-approved contraceptive patch. The initial approved labeling for Evra indicated that it delivered a daily EE dose of 20 micrograms. Evra had rapid uptake in the contraceptive market and achieved a 10% share of the CHC market by September 2003. Following FDA approval of Evra, users of Evra began to report thrombotic and thromboembolic events to the FDA. Johnson & Johnson, the manufacturer of Evra, revised the Evra labeling in November 2005 to include information that EE exposure with Evra is 60% higher than that of an oral contraceptive containing EE of 35 micrograms, based on area under the curve, a commonly-used metric for measuring EE exposure in contraceptives. This information was ultimately included in an addition to the boxed warning that was unique to the Evra label. The Evra market share declined rapidly following the labeling changes, from a peak share of 11% in 2005, to 4% by the end of 2006, to 1.4% by the end of 2013, where it stabilized, with a 1.5% share of the market based on combined prescriptions for Evra and its generic equivalent (Xulane®) in

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2014. In more recent years, the Xulane share of the CHC market TRx has grown, with a 1.8% share in 2017, 2.4% share in 2018, and 2.4% share in 2019.

        In April 2014, Mylan Inc. announced the launch of Xulane®. In recent years, the Xulane share of the CHC market has grown slightly, with a 1.7% TRx share in 2016 and 1.8% TRx share in 2017. Generic pharmaceutical products are the chemical and pharmaceutical equivalents of the brand or a reference listed drug, or RLD. Generic drugs are bioequivalent to their reference brand name counterparts. Bioequivalence studies compare the bioavailability of the proposed drug product with that of the RLD product containing the same active ingredients. Bioavailability is a measure of the rate and extent to which the active ingredient is absorbed from a drug product and becomes available at the site of action.

        The FDA has maintained, in spite of the wording in the labeling for Evra, which has been discontinued, and its approved branded generic, that none of the epidemiologic studies provides a definitive answer regarding the relative risk of VTE with Evra compared to combined oral contraceptive use or whether the increased risk that some studies demonstrated is directly attributable to Evra. In spite of the labeling changes, and Johnson & Johnson ceasing promotion of Evra in 2007, Evra and its generic equivalent continue to generate significant sales.

        With its approval on February 14, 2020, Twirla is now the only other transdermal contraceptive patch approved by the FDA. We believe that the rapid uptake and acceptance of Evra upon its introduction and its (and Xulane's) continued sales over the past several years demonstrate a market opportunity for multiple choices in transdermal contraceptive patches.

Twirla Potential Market Share

        Three of our market research studies have included an allocation exercise to estimate the potential uptake of Twirla and peak market share. In all of these studies, ObGyns and nurse practioners, or NPs, indicated their allocation of contraceptive prescriptions before and after reviewing a product profile like Twirla that reflects the safety and efficacy results from our SECURE clinical trial. In the 2010 study, which was conducted prior to the implementation of the ACA, ObGyns estimated use of a product like Twirla in 17% of their CHC patients. A proprietary calibration model developed by the research firm was applied to the peak share estimate, to adjust for physician overstatement, resulting in an estimated peak market share of 9% of the CHC market. In the study completed in December 2016, ObGyns, NPs, and physicians assistants, or PAs, estimated use of Twirla in 22% of their CHC patients, which was also calibrated to adjust for overstatement, resulting in an estimated peak market share of 14% of the CHC market. This estimate was confirmed in our most recent study completed in September of 2019, in which ObGyns and NPs/PAs estimated use of Twirla in 20% of their CHC patients, calibrated to 14% of the CHC market.

        We continue to evaluate the commercial opportunity for Twirla. We believe that the potential new CHC users who are within Twirla's approved indication represent a significant population of women. Based on the Company's market research, analysis of the current and expected future U.S. contraceptive market, and review of other product launches in the category, the Company estimates that Twirla can potentially achieve a peak market share of 5-8%. As we prepare for the commercialization of Twirla, we will continue to analyze the contraceptive market and update our market research for Twirla.

Twirla Commercialization Strategy

        In January 2018, following our receipt of the complete response letter, or CRL, we received in December 2017, or 2017 CRL, we significantly scaled back our preparations for commercialization of Twirla, including commercial pre-launch and manufacturing validation activities. With the approval of Twirla, we have begun to accelerate our commercial activities. In the first quarter of 2020, we plan to

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initiate work with managed care and patient payors to gain market access for Twirla. In the second quarter of 2020, we plan to begin hiring and training an initial sales team, which we estimate will consist of 70 to 100 persons. At the same time, we are currently preparing to initiate the validation of our commercial manufacturing process and expect to complete the validation process and commence distributing product to wholesalers in the fourth quarter of 2020. We will need to raise additional funds to complete these activities, and our ability to complete such activities according to our current planned timelines will depend on our ability to successfully raise the necessary capital.

Twirla Promotion Strategy

        We have a limited number of sales and marketing employees. We plan to expand our commercial team, but will primarily rely on third-party agencies with experience in commercializing pharmaceutical products to advance the commercialization of Twirla. Our marketing efforts will initially focus on Obstetrician-gynecologists in the United States, and we plan to use a significant number of samples in the early stage of commercial launch to gain patient trial and acceptance. We plan to focus the promotion of Twirla on these key prescribers and other key customer groups, including consumers and commercial managed care plans. We believe that we can deploy a focused sales force effort targeting the ObGyn, NP and PA prescribers who are responsible for approximately 70% of branded CHC prescriptions. In areas of the country where it is not efficient to deploy a sales representative, remote promotion can be used to reach these prescribers.

        We plan to use both branded and unbranded campaigns to create awareness of Twirla and available contraceptive options among consumers. We believe there are cost-effective means to reach our target demographic of females aged 18 to 34 years, who tend to engage in online activities to a high degree and are more likely to seek health information online and through social networks. Traditional mass-market direct-to-consumer advertising on television may not be required to reach these consumers. Marketing tactics aimed at today's female consumer need to be optimized for mobile technology because smartphones and text messaging are the preferred means of communication. We believe that a focused consumer promotion plan that uses digital media, potential social media advertising, and other mass-market advertising vehicles will generate consumer awareness and demand for Twirla.

Twirla Coverage and Reimbursement Strategy

        We initiated research with managed care and patient payors in the fourth quarter of 2019 to ensure we have a thorough understanding of the management of the contraceptive category. In the first quarter of 2020 we will continue to monitor competitive activity, assess the most probable formulary positions with identified target accounts and prepare for commercialization, including making limited company and portfolio presentations to payors within FDA guidelines. Also, in the first quarter of 2020, we will begin to meet with formulary decision makers as appropriate to rapidly secure positions for Twirla that minimize access barriers for prescribers and patients. We believe that it is important in this category for women to have equal access to all methods, dosing regimens and hormonal options so that they and their provider can select the choice that is the most appropriate to meet their lifestyle and family planning goals.

Topline Summary of Our Managed Care Market Research:

        The managed care research summarized below was conducted with medical and pharmacy directors in the fourth quarter of 2019. In regard to forward-looking questions, subjects were asked to

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assume that the ACA and Contraceptive Mandate would still be in effect. Our recent managed care research found the following:

Our Pipeline: Twirla Line Extensions and Potential Product Candidates

        Twirla is our first and only approved product, and substantially all of our resources are committed to the manufacturing validation and commercialization of Twirla. We have halted all further work on our pipeline. We will require additional capital to conduct required post-market studies of Twirla and, should we choose, to advance the development of Twirla line extensions and our potential product candidates.

        Our potential product pipeline consists of two classes of product candidates: Twirla line extensions and other transdermal contraceptive product candidates. These potential product candidates are designed to address market needs and offer additional non-daily contraceptive options. Based on the results of our market research online extension regimen concepts conducted in December 2016, we believe that our potential line extension product candidates may be commercially viable and could garner a share of the contraceptive market.

        The current status of our potential product candidate pipeline is summarized in the graphic below:

GRAPHIC

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        The hormonal contraceptive market has a long history of manufacturers successfully using line extensions to extend the lifecycle of a brand, often by gaining additional exclusivity periods for the product extension under the provisions of the Hatch-Waxman Act and/or with additional patents. Our lifecycle strategy with Twirla is to introduce line extensions that will have exclusivity for some time period, either due to our intellectual property estate, or due to Hatch-Waxman exclusivity. The line extensions in our pipeline include using our Skinfusion technology to allow a 28-day regimen where women will experience shorter, lighter withdrawal bleeding, as well as extending the cycle beyond the typical 28-day regimen to allow women to experience fewer withdrawal bleeds each year. In addition, the potential line extension product candidates in our pipeline will utilize a unique aspect in the regimen, where a smaller patch, or SmP, that delivers a lower dose of both EE and LNG will be worn during the final seven days of each cycle, rather than having a patch-free week, to allow for withdrawal bleeding while minimizing hormonal fluctuations and potentially the side effects that accompany changes in hormone levels. These regimens are protected by patents issued to us in 2015. A study to examine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the SmP will be required prior to advancing the potential line extension product candidates through clinical development.

        Our Twirla line extensions include the following:

        Our other potential product candidate is a P-only contraceptive patch described below:

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        We do not expect to be required to conduct preclinical studies for any of these potential product candidates. Based upon a number of factors, including, but not limited to, our available capital resources and feedback from the FDA, we continue to review the clinical path and the budgetary requirements for each of these three potential product candidates.

Competition

        The industry for contraceptive products is characterized by intense competition and strong promotion of proprietary products. While we believe that our Skinfusion technology provides us with a competitive advantage, we face potential competition from many different sources, including large pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical and generic drug companies, and medical device companies. Any product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize will compete with existing products and new products that may become available in the future.

        We face competition from a variety of non-permanent birth control products. There are non-hormonal barrier methods, such as the contraceptive sponge, diaphragm, cervical cap or shield and condoms. Then, there are hormonal methods, which is the category for Twirla and our potential product candidates, such as oral contraceptives, injections, implants, hormonal IUDs and vaginal ring and transdermal contraceptive products.

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        The following table is the FDA Birth Control Chart, which outlines the 18 unique forms of birth control and compares the effectiveness of each method.

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        Although there are over 250 CHC products currently available, including brands and generics, just twelve branded products make up approximately half of total market sales. Our potential competitors include large, well-established pharmaceutical companies, and specialty pharmaceutical sales and marketing companies. The branded products with established market presence include, Nuvaring®, marketed by Merck, the only contraceptive vaginal ring available on the market, the Loestrin® franchise, marketed by Allergan (formerly known as Actavis), consisting of three oral contraceptives, Minastrin® 24, LoLoestrin® and Taytulla®, and Beyaz®, Yaz®, Yasmin® and Natazia® marketed by Bayer. Xulane, the branded generic to Ortho Evra and the only other patch currently available on the market, generated $297 million in sales for Mylan in 2019. Additionally, several generics manufacturers currently market and continue to introduce new generic contraceptives, including Sandoz, Glenmark, Lupin, Amneal and Mylan. Based on the market experience of other non-oral CHC dosage forms, including Evra and Nuvaring, we believe there is a continuing demand for an innovative transdermal contraceptive patch that can provide convenience in a low-dose transdermal format.

        There are other hormonal contraceptive products, recently approved or in development that may compete with Twirla and our other potential product candidates. Annovera™, a vaginal ring developed by the Population Council, Inc. and licensed for commercialization by TherapeuticsMD, was approved on August 10, 2018 and began distribution August 15, 2019. Slynd®, a progestin-only pill containing drosperinone, was introduced by Exeltis in August of 2019. The Population Council also has a transdermal gel contraceptive in Phase 2, developed in collaboration with Antares Pharma, Inc. Two generics to Nuvaring were introduced in December 2019, EluRyng™ by Amneal and EVE-112 by Prasco Labs. Other companies that have new hormonal contraceptive products in various stages of development include Bayer, with a contraceptive patch and a P-only vaginal ring, both in Phase 3 development. Allergan has a P-only ring for which they received a CRL from the FDA. Mithra Pharmaceuticals SA announced Phase 3 data for a combination oral contraceptive in January 2019, and licensed this product to Mayne Pharma for distribution in the U.S. In the past few years, some of the large pharmaceutical companies such as Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, and Teva have dissolved their women's health specialty marketing and sales teams, and Bayer has shifted their focus away from their CHC products to their IUD franchise, although they recently signed a license agreement with Dare Bioscience for U.S. commercial rights to Ovaprene, a hormone-free monthly contraceptive vaginal ring.

        We are aware of only one other CHC transdermal patch in development. This patch is being developed by Bayer, and contains the active ingredients EE and gestodene, a third-generation progestin. Bayer has stated that their gestodene patch is small, round, and transparent, and delivers a daily EE dose comparable to a 20 microgram EE oral contraceptive. Phase 3 studies of the Bayer gestodene patch began in 2004, and they completed a Phase 3 efficacy trial in the United States in December 2010. Bayer also completed Phase 3 efficacy trials in the European Union, or E.U., and Latin America in September 2011, submitted a marketing application to the E.U. in September 2012, and received approval to market the gestodene patch in the E.U. in February 2014. At the time of the E.U. submission, Bayer reported that they were in talks with the FDA regarding a U.S. submission, but there has been no further public information regarding a U.S. submission or approval, and the most recent Bayer pipeline information does not list the gestodene patch.

        To date, there are no contraceptives containing gestodene available in the United States. We are aware that Wyeth was developing oral contraceptives containing gestodene in the late 1980s, with a new drug application, or NDA, filed for an oral contraceptive containing gestodene and EE in 1988, and Wyeth planned on filing an NDA for a second oral contraceptive containing gestodene in 1991. These products were never approved, and in a Wyeth pipeline report from 1996, there was no mention of any gestodene-containing product candidates among its contraceptives in development. Although not available in the United States, gestodene has been widely used outside the United States for a number of years. As with other third generation progestins, epidemiologic studies have reported a two-fold increase in risk of VTE with contraceptives containing gestodene compared to those containing LNG.

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We believe that if Bayer were to obtain FDA approval for the gestodene patch, the approved labeling may contain the same language that products containing third generation progestins have, which states that these contraceptives have a two-fold increase in risk of VTE as compared with contraceptives containing second generation progestins.

Manufacturing

        We do not own any manufacturing facilities and rely on Corium for all aspects of the manufacturing of Twirla. We, along with Corium, have made a significant investment in a proprietary process to manufacture Twirla. We believe we have developed a robust process to reliably manufacture Twirla on a commercial scale. We believe that the technical challenges and know-how involved in manufacturing, including proprietary chemistry, production to scale and use of custom equipment and reproducibility, present significant barriers to entry for other pharmaceutical companies who might potentially want to replicate our Skinfusion technology.

        We will need to continue to invest in the manufacturing process for Twirla, and incur significant expenses, in order to complete the equipment qualification and validation related to Corium's manufacturing capabilities in order to be capable of supplying projected commercial quantities of Twirla. In September 2019, we re-started manufacturing development at Corium. We are currently working with Corium to complete manufacturing development and process improvements and plan to commence pre-validation work when that work is complete. Our goal is to manufacture three validation batches of Twirla and complete the pre-validation and validation of the commercial manufacturing process consistent with our approved marketing application in the second half of 2020.

        In 2006, we entered into an exclusive agreement with Corium to develop Twirla using our Skinfusion technology, and also for AG890, which is a progestin-only contraceptive patch in Phase 1/2 of clinical development. Our Corium agreement is an exclusive arrangement until Corium has commercially produced a significant, agreed-upon quantity of patches, currently projected to occur no earlier than five years following the commercial launch of Twirla. Pursuant to the terms of our agreement, Corium is required to use commercially reasonable efforts to maintain sufficient manufacturing capabilities to supply the quantities of Twirla required for its initial commercial launch and commercial sales thereafter. Corium needs to complete the validation of the commercial manufacturing process for Twirla and potentially further expand its manufacturing capabilities to be capable of supplying projected commercial quantities of Twirla. In 2018 Corium was acquired by Gurnet Holding Company, or GHC. Following completion of the transaction, Corium became a private company, wholly owned by GHC. Corium has announced that it plans to continue its operations in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where Twirla will be commercially manufactured.

Strategic Agreements

Agreement with Corium

        Pursuant to our manufacturing agreement, Corium's exclusive right to manufacture Twirla and AG890 extends until Corium has commercially produced a significant, agreed-upon quantity of patches, currently projected to occur no earlier than five years following the commercial launch of Twirla, at which point the agreement will expire. Under the terms of our agreement, we will pay Corium a defined price per finished patch, whether used for samples or commercial sale. We will owe no royalties to Corium in connection with the production of finished patches. The contract may be terminated by either party for the other party's uncured material breach. Following the end of the exclusivity period, if we were to seek a second source of supply, we would be required to obtain FDA approval through an NDA supplement for an additional manufacturing site(s). The process of acquiring a second source of supply and obtaining FDA approval generally takes two years or more and would require us to make substantial investments in new facilities and equipment.

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        Under our agreement, Corium has performed process development and manufacturing of Twirla for each of our clinical trials. For the development work performed, we paid Corium for time and materials related to the achievement of certain development goals. To date, we have made approximately $1.7 million of milestone payments to Corium, all of which were paid between the years 2006 and 2009. Corium is not eligible for any milestone payments in the future.

        In order to accommodate our anticipated commercial launch of Twirla, Corium has completed a substantial build-out of its facilities in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and it has installed over $10.0 million of equipment we purchased. We plan to complete the validation of the commercial manufacturing process for Twirla in the second half of 2020.

Reimbursement

        Managed care plans have traditionally used differential co-pays to attempt to drive patients to use either generic products or products for which they have a contract with the manufacturer. Typically, a managed care plan's formulary is organized into between three and six tiers. Each tier is then associated with a set range of co-pay amounts or a percent of the drug costs with products in the lower tiers having a lower co-pay. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. As of August 1, 2011, female contraception was added to a list of preventive services covered by the ACA that would be provided without patient co-payment. The federal mandate applied to all new health insurance plans in all states from August 1, 2012.

        Prior to May 2015, managed care plans individually interpreted the requirement for coverage of contraceptives under the ACA. Some plans designated that all contraceptives containing the same progestin are equivalent, and therefore only cover a select few products containing each progestin, usually the least expensive generics, with no co-pay. Other plans defined contraceptive methods into categories such as "hormonal", "emergency contraception", and "barrier methods", and they cover just one product for each method with no co-pay. In May 2015, a clarification in the form of an FAQ was jointly issued by the applicable government agencies (HHS, DOL, and Treasury) which clarified the requirements for coverage of contraceptives under the ACA. The FAQ states that plans and issuers must cover without cost-sharing at least one form of contraception in each of the 18 methods the FDA has identified for women in its current Birth Control Guide. The patch is identified as a specific method in the FDA Birth Control Guide, and therefore insurers must cover at least one patch product with no cost-sharing to the patient. Because this clarifying guidance is applied for plan years (or in the individual market, policy years) beginning on or after 60 days from the date of publication of the FAQs, patients did not have the benefit of this clarification until their new plan year, which generally started in January 2016.

        On January 20, 2017, the administration signed an Executive Order directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the ACA to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the ACA that would impose a fiscal or regulatory burden on states, individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices, among others. Congress also could consider subsequent legislation to repeal and replace elements of the ACA. Additionally, in October 2017, the Department of Health and Human Services, jointly with the Department of Labor and the Treasury, issued two interim rules outlining exemption processes for employers not wanting to offer contraceptive coverage based on their religious beliefs or sincerely held moral convictions. While there is an injunction against the administration prohibiting it from implementing these rules, the ultimate outcome of that litigation, which is currently in front of the Supreme Court, cannot be predicted. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the full effect of the ACA or any other healthcare reform efforts on our business.

        Before the ACA was passed, many states had enacted contraceptive equity laws that required plans to treat contraceptives in the same way they covered other services. In addition, since the ACA was

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passed, a number of states have enacted laws that basically codify in state legislation the ACA benefit rules (requiring all plans to cover, without cost-sharing, each of the 18 FDA-approved contraceptive methods). Federal law applies to all plans while state law applies to only individual plans and fully-insured group plans. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia require insurance plans to cover contraceptives, with a wide range of coverage and cost-sharing requirements, and exemptions among these mandates. If new federal regulations become effective the scope of contraceptive benefits for women would depend on the coverage policies and exemptions established by state laws. We will continue to monitor healthcare reform efforts and agency implementation.

Government Regulation

        Government authorities in the United States, at the federal, state and local level, and in other countries extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, packaging, storage, recordkeeping, labeling, advertising, promotion, distribution, marketing, import and export of pharmaceutical products such as those we are developing. The processes for obtaining regulatory approvals in the United States and in foreign countries, along with subsequent compliance with applicable statutes and regulations, require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources.

FDA Regulation

        In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and its implementing regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or after approval, may subject an applicant to a variety of administrative or judicial sanctions, such as the FDA's refusal to approve pending NDAs, withdrawal of an approval, imposition of a clinical hold or termination, issuance of Warning, Untitled, or Cyber Letters, requests for product recalls, product seizures or detention, total or partial suspension or restriction of production, marketing or distribution, injunctions, fines, debarment, refusal to allow the import or export of product, adverse publicity, modification of promotional materials or labeling, refusals of government contracts, exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs, restitution, disgorgement, imprisonment, consent decrees and corporate integrity agreements, or civil or criminal penalties.

        The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

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Preclinical Studies and IND Submission

        Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluation of drug substance chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and drug product formulation, as well as animal studies to assess potential safety and efficacy. An IND sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical tests and preclinical literature, together with manufacturing information, analytical data and any available clinical data or literature, among other things, to the FDA as part of an IND, unless the sponsor is relying on prior FDA findings of safety or efficacy of the drug product, in which case, some of the above information may be omitted. Some preclinical testing may continue even after the IND is submitted. An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time the FDA raises concerns or questions related to one or more proposed clinical trials and places the trial on a clinical hold. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. As a result, submission of an IND may not result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to commence.

Clinical Trials

        Clinical trials involve the administration of an investigational new drug to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with cGCP requirements, which includes the requirements that all research subjects provide their informed consent in writing for their participation in any clinical trial, and the review and approval of the study by an IRB. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the trial, the trial procedures, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the efficacy criteria to be evaluated and a statistical analysis plan. A protocol for each clinical trial and any subsequent protocol amendments must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. In addition, an IRB for each clinical trial site participating in the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences, and the IRB must continue to oversee the clinical trial while it is being conducted, including any changes.

        Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, which may overlap or be combined. In Phase 1, the drug is initially introduced into healthy human subjects or subjects with the target disease or condition and tested for safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution, excretion and, if possible, to gain an initial indication of its effectiveness. In Phase 2, the drug typically is administered through controlled studies to a limited subject population with the target disease or condition to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of the drug for specific targeted diseases or conditions and to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage. In Phase 3, the drug is administered to an expanded subject population, generally at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites, in two adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to generate enough data to statistically evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product candidate for approval, to establish the overall risk-benefit profile of the product candidate and to provide adequate information for the labeling of the product candidate. In the case of a 505(b)(2) NDA, which is a marketing application in which sponsors may rely on investigations that were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted, some of the above-described studies and preclinical studies may not be required or may be abbreviated. Bridging studies may be needed, however, to demonstrate the applicability of the studies that were previously conducted by other sponsors to the

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drug that is the subject of the marketing application. In addition to the above traditional kinds of data required for the approval of an NDA, the 21st Century Cures Act provides for FDA acceptance of additional kinds of data such as such as patient experience data, real world evidence for already approved products, and, for appropriate indications sought through supplemental marketing applications, data summaries.

        In addition, under the Pediatric Research Equity Act, or PREA, an NDA or supplement to an NDA for a new active ingredient, indication, dosage form, dosage regimen or route of administration must contain data that are adequate to assess the safety and efficacy of the drug for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. The FDA may, on its own initiative or at the request of the applicant, grant deferrals for submission of some or all pediatric data until after approval of the product for use in adults, or full or partial waivers from the pediatric data requirements. We have obtained a waiver from the conduct of a PREA study.

        The manufacture of investigational drugs for the conduct of human clinical trials is subject to FDA product manufacturing requirements. Investigational drugs and active pharmaceutical ingredients imported into the United States are also subject to regulation by the FDA relating to their labeling and distribution. Further, the export of investigational drug products outside of the United States is subject to regulatory requirements of the receiving country as well as U.S. export requirements under the FDCA.

        Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must be submitted at least annually to the FDA and the IRB and more frequently if serious adverse events occur. Information about certain clinical trials, including a description of the study and study results, must be submitted within specific timeframes to the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, for public dissemination on their ClinicalTrials.gov website. Failure to submit the required information to ClinicalTrials.gov can result in monetary penalties. Marketing application applicants must also report certain investigator financial interests to the FDA.

        Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, or at all. Furthermore, the FDA or the sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB's requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to subjects. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group regularly reviews accumulated data and advises the study sponsor regarding the continuing safety of trial subjects, potential trial subjects, and the continuing validity and scientific merit of the clinical trial. We may also suspend or terminate a clinical trial based on evolving business objectives or competitive climate.

U.S. Marketing Approval

        Assuming successful completion of the required clinical testing, the results of the preclinical and clinical studies, including negative or ambiguous results as well as positive findings, together with detailed information relating to the product's chemistry, manufacture, controls and proposed labeling, among other things, are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. In most cases, the submission of an NDA is subject to a substantial application user fee. These user fees must be filed at the time of the first submission of the application, even if the application is being submitted on a rolling basis. A user fee for the Twirla contraceptive patch was submitted with the original NDA. Application resubmissions by the same applicant do not require a new application fee. Under the PDUFA guidelines that are currently in

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effect, the FDA has agreed to certain performance goals regarding the timing of its review of an application. The FDA's standard review goal is to act on 90% of all Non-New Molecular Entity applications within ten months of FDA receipt of the application. These time periods may be extended by the FDA should an applicant submit new information to the agency during the course of the FDA's review of the marketing application. The time period is also only a goal and may not be met by the FDA.

        The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all original NDAs within the first 60 days after submission, before accepting them for filing, to determine whether they are sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. In this event, the application must be submitted again with the additional information and is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing.

        Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review to determine, among other things, whether the drug is safe and effective and whether the facility in which it is manufactured, processed, packaged or held, as well as the manufacturing processes and controls, meet standards designed to ensure the product's continued safety, quality and purity.

        The FDA may refer a marketing application to an external advisory committee for questions pertaining to issues such as clinical trial design, safety and efficacy, and public health questions. An advisory committee is a panel of independent experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts, that reviews, evaluates and provides a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it typically follows such recommendations and considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.

        Before approving an NDA, the FDA will inspect the facility or facilities where the product is manufactured, referred to as a Pre-Approval Inspection. The FDA will not approve an application unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with the FDA's requirements for product manufacturing and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications by the manufacturer and all of its subcontractors and contract manufacturers. Additionally, before approving an NDA, the FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical trial sites to assure compliance with cGCP. Also, as part of its regulatory review, the FDA verifies the data contained in the NDA.

        The testing and approval process for a drug product requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and may take several years to complete. Data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing are not always conclusive and may be susceptible to varying interpretations, which could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. The FDA may not grant approval of a marketing application on a timely basis, or at all.

        After evaluating the NDA and all related information, including the advisory committee recommendation, if any, and inspection reports regarding the manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites, the FDA may issue an approval letter, or, in some cases, a CRL. A CRL indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete, and the application is not ready for approval. A CRL generally contains a statement of specific conditions that must be met in order to secure final approval of the drug product and may require additional clinical or preclinical testing, or other information in order for the FDA to reconsider the application.

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        If an application receives a CRL, the applicant may resubmit the application, addressing all of the FDA-cited deficiencies, withdraw the application, or request the opportunity for a hearing. If the applicant resubmits the application, the application is subject to an initial FDA review. Within 30 days of receipt, the FDA will review a resubmission to determine whether it constitutes a complete response that addresses all deficiencies identified in a complete response letter. The agency then issues a letter to the applicant, stating whether the agency agrees that the resubmission is a complete response. If the FDA does not agree that the resubmission is a complete response, the review clock will not start until a complete response is received. If the agency agrees that the resubmission is a complete response, the FDA will classify the resubmission as either Class 1 or 2. The FDA aims to review Class 1 resubmissions within two months of receipt or Class 2 resubmissions within six months of receipt. Class 1 resubmissions are resubmissions of an NDA following a complete response letter that include minor updates or data reanalysis. Class 2 resubmissions include more complex or extensive updates to the NDA. As with the PDUFA timelines for original submissions, these are also subject to extension if the sponsor submits new information. Resubmitted applications may also be subject to FDA inspection of clinical and manufacturing sites, as well as review by FDA advisory committees. Following its review of a resubmitted NDA, the FDA may issue an approval letter or another CRL.

        Even if an applicant resubmits with the required additional information, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval. If and when those conditions have been met to the FDA's satisfaction, the FDA may issue an approval letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications.

        Even if the FDA approves a product candidate, it may limit the approved indications for use of the product candidate and require that contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling, including a black box warning. The FDA also may not approve the inclusion of labeling claims necessary for successful marketing. Moreover, the FDA may require that post-approval studies, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess certain aspects of a drug's safety and efficacy after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization, or impose other conditions, including distribution restrictions or other risk management mechanisms. For example, the FDA may require a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, as a condition of approval or following approval to mitigate any identified or suspected serious risks and ensure safe use of the drug. The REMS plan could include medication guides, physician communication plans, assessment plans, and elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries or other risk minimization tools. A REMS could materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. The FDA may prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of post-marketing studies or surveillance programs. After approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes, and additional labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements, submission of a supplemental application, and FDA review and approval. Further, should new safety information arise, additional testing, product labeling or FDA notification may be required.

Hatch-Waxman Act

        Section 505 of the FDCA describes three types of marketing applications that may be submitted to the FDA to request marketing authorization for a new drug. A Section 505(b)(1) NDA is an application that contains full reports of investigations of safety and efficacy. A 505(b)(2) NDA is an application that contains full reports of investigations of safety and efficacy but where at least some of the information required for approval comes from investigations that were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted. This regulatory pathway enables the applicant to rely, in part, on the FDA's prior findings of safety and efficacy for an existing product, or published

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literature, in support of its application. Section 505(j) establishes an abbreviated approval process for a generic version of an approved drug product through the submission of an Abbreviated New Drug Application, or ANDA. An ANDA provides for marketing of a generic drug product that has the same active ingredients, dosage form, strength, route of administration, labeling, performance characteristics and intended use, among other things, to a previously approved product. ANDAs are termed "abbreviated" because they are generally not required to include preclinical (animal) and clinical (human) data to establish safety and efficacy. Instead, generic applicants must scientifically demonstrate that their product is bioequivalent to, or performs in the same manner as, the innovator drug through in vitro, in vivo, or other testing. The generic version must deliver the same amount of active ingredients into a subject's bloodstream in the same amount of time as the innovator drug and can often be substituted by pharmacists under prescriptions written for the reference listed drug. In seeking approval for a drug through an NDA, applicants are required to list with the FDA each patent with claims that cover the applicant's drug or a method of using the drug. Upon approval of a drug, each of the patents listed in the application for the drug is then published in the FDA's Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations publication, commonly known as the Orange Book. Drugs listed in the Orange Book can, in turn, be cited by potential competitors in support of approval of an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA.

        Upon submission of an ANDA or a 505(b)(2) NDA, an applicant must certify to the FDA that: (1) no patent information on the drug product that is the subject of the application has been submitted to the FDA; (2) such patent has expired; (3) the date on which such patent expires; or (4) such patent is invalid or will not be infringed upon by the manufacture, use or sale of the drug product for which the application is submitted. Generally, the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA cannot be approved until all listed patents have expired, except where the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA applicant challenges a listed patent through the last type of certification, also known as a Paragraph IV certification. If the applicant does not challenge the listed patents or indicate that it is not seeking approval of a patented method of use, the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA application will not be approved until all of the listed patents claiming the referenced product have expired.

        If the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA applicant has provided a Paragraph IV certification to the FDA, the applicant must send notice of the Paragraph IV certification to the NDA and patent holders within a specified timeframe. The NDA and patent holders may then initiate a patent infringement lawsuit in response to the notice of the Paragraph IV certification. If the Paragraph IV certification is challenged by an NDA holder or the patent owner(s) asserts a patent challenge to the Paragraph IV certification, the FDA may not make an approval effective until the earlier of 30 months from the receipt of the notice of the Paragraph IV certification, the expiration of the patent, when the infringement case concerning each such patent was favorably decided in the applicant's favor or settled, or such shorter or longer period as may be ordered by a court. This prohibition is generally referred to as the 30-month stay. In instances where an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA applicant files a Paragraph IV certification, the NDA holder or patent owner(s) regularly take action to trigger the 30-month stay, recognizing that the related patent litigation may take many months or years to resolve. Thus, approval of an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA could be delayed for a significant period of time depending on the patent certification the applicant makes and the reference drug sponsor's decision to initiate patent litigation.

        The Hatch-Waxman Act establishes periods of regulatory exclusivity for certain approved drug products, during which the FDA cannot approve (or in some cases accept) an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application that relies on the branded reference drug. For example, the holder of an NDA, including a 505(b)(2) NDA, may obtain five years of exclusivity upon approval of a new drug containing new chemical entities, or NCEs, that have not been previously approved by the FDA. A drug is a new chemical entity if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the therapeutic activity of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an ANDA or a 505(b)(2) NDA

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submitted by another company that contains the previously approved active moiety. However, an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement.

        The Hatch-Waxman Act also provides three years of marketing exclusivity to the holder of an NDA (including a 505(b)(2) NDA) for a particular condition of approval, or change to a marketed product, such as a new formulation for a previously approved product, if one or more new clinical studies (other than bioavailability or bioequivalence studies) was essential to the approval of the application and was conducted/sponsored by the applicant. This three-year exclusivity period protects against the FDA making an ANDA and 505(b)(2) NDA approval effective for the condition of the new drug's approval. As a general matter, the three-year exclusivity does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs or 505(b)(2) NDAs for generic versions of the original, unmodified drug product. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA; however, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and efficacy.

        Our NDA for Twirla was submitted under Section 505(b)(2), and we expect that some of our other drug candidates will utilize the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway. Even though several of our drug products utilize active drug ingredients that are commercially marketed in the United States in other dosage forms, we need to establish the safety and efficacy of those active ingredients in the formulation and dosage forms that we are developing. All approved products, both innovator and generic, are listed in the FDA's Orange Book.

        Recently, Congress, the Administration, and administrative agencies have taken certain measures to increase drug competition and thus, decrease drug prices. By example, in 2019 FDA introduced a proposed rule and draft guidance to facilitate drug importation. Congress also passed a bill requiring sponsors of NDA approved products to provide sufficient quantities of drug product on commercially reasonable market based terms to entities developing generic and similar drug products. This bill also included provisions on shared and individual REMS for generic drug products.

Combination Drug/Device Regulation

        Twirla and our potential product candidates are considered to be drug-device combination products by the FDA. While our potential product candidates, as a whole, are subject to the NDA approval process, drug-device combination products require compliance with additional FDA regulations. For instance, drug-device combination products must comply with the drug cGMPs, as well as some of the device Quality System Regulations, or QSRs. These dual requirements will require additional effort, FDA reporting, and monetary expenditure to ensure that Twirla and our potential product candidates comply with all applicable regulatory requirements.

U.S. Post-Approval Requirements

        Drugs manufactured or distributed pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to manufacturing recordkeeping, periodic reporting, product sampling and distribution, advertising and promotion, reporting of adverse experiences with the product and drug shortages, and compliance with any post-approval requirements imposed as a condition of approval, such as Phase 4 clinical trials, REMS and surveillance to assess safety and efficacy after commercialization. After approval, most changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications or other labeling claims are subject to prior FDA review and approval. There are also continuing, annual prescription drug program user fee requirements for any approved products. In addition, drug manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs are required to register their establishments with

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the FDA and state agencies, list drugs manufactured at their facilities with the FDA, and are subject to periodic announced and unannounced inspections by the FDA and these state agencies for compliance with FDA and state requirements for product manufacturing and other requirements. Changes to the manufacturing process are strictly regulated and often require prior FDA approval before being implemented, or FDA notification. FDA regulations also require investigation and correction of any deviations from FDA requirements for product manufacturing and impose reporting and documentation requirements upon the sponsor and any third-party manufacturers that the sponsor may decide to use. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain FDA requirements for product manufacturing compliance.

        Once an approval is granted, the FDA may withdraw the approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market.

        Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in mandatory revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information; imposition of post-market studies or clinical trials to assess new safety risks; or imposition of distribution or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

        The FDA strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of products that are placed on the market. Although physicians, in the practice of medicine, may prescribe approved drugs for unapproved indications, pharmaceutical companies are prohibited from marketing or promoting their drug products for uses outside the approved label, a practice known as off-label promotion. The FDA and other agencies enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability, including criminal and civil penalties under the FDCA and False Claims Act, exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs, mandatory compliance programs under corporate integrity agreements, debarment and refusal of government contracts.

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        In addition, the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical products, including samples, is subject to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, or PDMA, which regulates the distribution of drugs and drug samples at the federal level and reporting regarding drug samples. Both the PDMA and state laws limit the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical product samples and impose requirements to ensure accountability in distribution.

        Moreover, the Drug Quality and Security Act imposes obligations on manufacturers of pharmaceutical products related to product tracking and tracing. Among the requirements of this legislation, manufacturers are required to provide certain information regarding the drug product to individuals and entities to which product ownership is transferred, are required to label drug product with a product identifier and are required to keep certain records regarding the drug product. The transfer of information to subsequent product owners by manufacturers is also required to be done electronically. Manufacturers must also verify that purchasers of the manufacturers' products are appropriately licensed. Further, under this legislation, manufactures have drug product investigation, quarantine, disposition, and FDA and trading partner notification responsibilities related to counterfeit, diverted, stolen and intentionally adulterated products, as well as products that are the subject of fraudulent transactions or which are otherwise unfit for distribution such that they would be reasonably likely to result in serious health consequences or death. Other persons and entities within the drug supply chain are also subject to Drug Quality and Security Act requirements.

U.S. Fraud and Abuse, Data Privacy and Security and Transparency Laws and Regulations

        In addition to FDA restrictions on marketing of pharmaceutical products, federal and state fraud and abuse laws restrict business practices in the biopharmaceutical industry. These laws include, among other things, anti-kickback, physician payment transparency and false claims laws and regulations as well as data privacy and security laws and regulations.

        The federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, any person or entity from knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving any remuneration, directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or in return for purchasing, leasing, ordering, or arranging for or recommending the purchase, lease, or order of any item or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or other federal healthcare programs. The term "remuneration" has been interpreted broadly to include anything of value. Additionally, the intent standard under the Anti-Kickback Statute and criminal healthcare fraud statutes was also amended by the ACA to a stricter standard such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. In addition, the ACA provided that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act. The Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on one hand and prescribers, purchasers, and formulary managers on the other. There are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution. Practices that involve remuneration that may be alleged to be intended to induce prescribing, purchases, or recommendations may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exception or safe harbor. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Anti-Kickback Statute. Instead, the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on a cumulative review of all of its facts and circumstances.

        The federal civil False Claims Act prohibits, among other things, any person or entity from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment to, or approval by, the federal government or knowingly making, using, or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to the federal government. A claim includes "any request or demand" for money or property presented to the U.S. government. The civil False

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Claims Act has been used to assert liability on the basis of kickbacks and other improper referrals, improperly reported government pricing metrics such as Best Price or Average Manufacturer Price, improper promotion of off-label uses not expressly approved by the FDA in a drug's label, and allegations as to misrepresentations with respect to the services rendered. Additionally, the civil monetary penalties statute, which, among other things, imposes fines against any person who is determined to have presented, or caused to be presented, claims to a federal healthcare program that the person knows, or should know, is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent. The federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, also created federal criminal statutes that prohibit knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud or to obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, including private third party payors and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by trick, scheme or device a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services relating to healthcare matters. Also, many states have similar fraud and abuse statutes or regulations that apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, or, in several states, that apply regardless of the payor.

        In addition, we may be subject to data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, including the final omnibus rule published on January 25, 2013, imposes specified requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. Among other things, HITECH makes security standards and certain privacy standards directly applicable to business associates. HITECH also created four new tiers of civil monetary penalties, amended HIPAA to make civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorneys' fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, state laws may govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts. For instance, the recently enacted California Consumer Privacy Act may govern the privacy and security of health and other information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not be preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

        Additionally, federal physician payment transparency laws, including the federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act created under Section 6002 of the ACA and its implementing regulations, require that manufacturers of drugs for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program, with certain exceptions, report annually to the government information related to payments or other "transfers of value" made or distributed to physicians, which is defined to include doctors of medicine, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors, generally, with some exceptions, and teaching hospitals, or to entities or individuals at the request of, or designated on behalf of, physicians and teaching hospitals. Additionally, applicable manufacturers and group purchasing organizations are required to report annually to the government certain ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Manufacturers must submit reports by the 90th day of each calendar year. Disclosure of such information is made on a publicly available website.

        There are also an increasing number of analogous state laws that regulate price increases, require manufacturers to file reports with states on pricing and marketing information, and to track and report gifts, compensation, other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and healthcare entities. Many of these laws contain ambiguities as to what is required in order to comply

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with such laws. For example, several states have enacted legislation requiring pharmaceutical companies to, among other things, establish and implement commercial compliance programs, file periodic reports with the state, make periodic public disclosures on sales, marketing, pricing, clinical trials and other activities, or register their sales representatives. Certain state laws also regulate manufacturers' use of prescriber-identifiable data. These laws may affect our future sales, marketing and other promotional activities by imposing administrative and compliance burdens. In addition, given the lack of clarity with respect to these laws and their implementation, our reporting actions once we commercialize could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent state and federal authorities.

        If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws or regulations described above or any other laws that apply to us, we may be subject to a variety of penalties, depending upon the law found to have been violated, potentially including criminal and significant civil monetary penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, corporate integrity agreements, refusal of government contracts, contract debarment and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. To the extent that any of our products are sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws and regulations, which may include, for instance, applicable post-marketing requirements, including safety surveillance, anti-fraud and abuse laws, and implementation of corporate compliance programs and reporting of payments or transfers of value to healthcare professionals.

Coverage and Reimbursement Generally

        The commercial success of Twirla and our other potential product candidates and our ability to commercialize any approved product candidates successfully will depend in part on the extent to which governmental payor programs at the federal and state levels, including Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers and other third-party payors provide coverage for and establish adequate coverage of and reimbursement levels for our potential product candidates. Government authorities, private health insurers and other organizations generally decide which drugs they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels for healthcare. In particular, in the United States, private health insurers and other third-party payors often provide reimbursement for products and services based on the level at which the government provides reimbursement through the Medicare or Medicaid programs for such products and services. In the United States, the E.U. and other potentially significant markets for our potential product candidates, government authorities and third-party payors are increasingly attempting to limit or regulate the price of medical products and services, particularly for new and innovative products and therapies, which often has resulted in average selling prices lower than they would otherwise be. Further, the increased emphasis on managed healthcare in the United States and on country and regional pricing and reimbursement controls in the E.U. will put additional pressure on product pricing, reimbursement and utilization, which may adversely affect our future product sales and results of operations. These pressures can arise from rules and practices of managed care groups, judicial decisions and governmental laws and regulations related to Medicare, Medicaid and healthcare reform, pharmaceutical coverage and reimbursement policies and pricing in general. Patients who are prescribed treatments for their conditions and providers performing the prescribed services generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the associated healthcare costs. Sales of our potential product candidates will therefore depend substantially, both domestically and abroad, on the extent to which the costs of our products will be paid by health maintenance organizations, managed care, pharmacy benefit and similar healthcare management organizations, or reimbursed by government health administration authorities, such as Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers and other third-party payors.

        Third-party payors are increasingly imposing additional requirements and restrictions on coverage and limiting reimbursement levels for medical products, including pharmaceuticals. For example,

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federal and state governments reimburse covered prescription drugs at varying rates generally below average wholesale price. These restrictions and limitations influence the purchase of healthcare services and products. Third-party payors are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific drug products on an approved list, or formulary, which might not include all of the FDA-approved drug products for a particular indication. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of medical products and services, in addition to their safety and efficacy. We may need to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies in order to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of our products, in addition to the costs required to obtain FDA approvals. Our potential product candidates may not be considered medically necessary or cost-effective. Moreover, a payor's decision to provide coverage for a drug product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Adequate third-party reimbursement may not be available to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investment in drug development for a product candidate. Legislative proposals to reform healthcare or reduce costs under government insurance programs may result in lower reimbursement for our potential product candidates or exclusion of our potential product candidates from coverage. The cost containment measures that healthcare payors and providers are instituting and any healthcare reform could significantly reduce our revenues from the sale of any approved product candidates. We cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to obtain and maintain third-party coverage or adequate reimbursement for our potential product candidates in whole or in part.

Healthcare Reform

        Legislative proposals to reform healthcare or reduce costs under government healthcare programs may result in lower reimbursement for our potential product candidates or exclusion of our potential product candidates from coverage. There have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system that could affect our ability to profitably sell our potential product candidates, if approved. Among policy makers and payors in the United States and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives.

        It is possible that comparative effectiveness research demonstrating benefits in a competitor's product could adversely affect sales of our potential product candidates. If third-party payors do not consider our potential product candidates to be cost-effective compared to other available therapies, they may not cover our potential product candidates, once approved, as a benefit under their plans or, if they do, the level of payment may not be sufficient to allow us to sell our potential product candidates on a profitable basis.

        In addition, in August 2011, President Obama signed into law the Budget Control Act of 2011, as amended, which, among other things, created the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to recommend proposals in spending reductions to Congress. The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction did not achieve its targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, triggering the legislation's automatic reductions to several government programs. These reductions include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and will stay in effect through 2024 unless additional Congressional action is taken. In November 2015, the Bipartisan Budget Act was enacted into law, which, among other things, extended sequestration through 2025. These and other healthcare reform initiatives may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial operations. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could further limit the prices we

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are able to charge, or the amounts of reimbursement available, for our potential product candidates if they are approved.

        On January 20, 2017, the then-new administration signed an Executive Order directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the ACA to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the ACA that would impose a fiscal or regulatory burden on states, individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices among others. Additionally, in October 2017, the Department of Health and Human Services, jointly with the Department of Labor and the Treasury, issued two interim rules outlining exemption processes for employers not wanting to offer contraceptive coverage based on their religious beliefs or sincerely held moral convictions. While there is an injunction against the administration prohibiting it from implementing these rules, the ultimate outcome of that litigation, which is currently in front of the Supreme Court, cannot be predicted. Congress also could consider subsequent legislation to repeal and replace elements of the ACA that are repealed. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the full effect of the ACA or any other healthcare reform efforts on our business.

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

        The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, prohibits any U.S. individual or business from paying, offering, or authorizing payment or offering of anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any foreign official, political party or candidate for the purpose of influencing any act or decision of the foreign entity in order to assist the individual or business in obtaining or retaining business. The FCPA also obligates companies whose securities are listed in the United States to comply with accounting provisions requiring the company to maintain books and records that accurately and fairly reflect all transactions of the corporation, including international subsidiaries, and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls for international operations. Activities that violate the FCPA, even if they occur wholly outside the United States, can result in criminal and civil fines, imprisonment, disgorgement, oversight and debarment from government contracts.

Foreign Regulation

        We currently have no plans to seek approval for Twirla outside of the United States. In order to market any product outside of the United States, we would need to comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of other countries regarding safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, clinical trials, marketing authorization, commercial sales and distribution of our products. Whether or not we obtain FDA approval for a product, we would need to obtain the necessary approvals by the comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries before we can commence clinical trials or marketing of the product in those countries. The approval process varies from country to country and can involve additional product testing and additional administrative review periods. The time required to obtain approval in other countries might differ from and be longer than that required to obtain FDA approval. Regulatory approval in one country does not ensure regulatory approval in another, but a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may negatively impact the regulatory process in others.

Research and Development

        Conducting research and development is central to our business model. We have invested and expect to continue to invest significant time and capital in our research and development operations. Our research and development expenses were $9.9 million, $9.8 million, and $14.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively. In 2020, we expect to continue to incur research and development expenses as we refine our commercial manufacturing process.

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Intellectual Property

        We strive to protect the proprietary technologies that we believe are important to our business, including seeking and maintaining patent protection intended to cover our Skinfusion® technology, its methods of use, related technologies and other inventions that are important to our business. As more fully described below, our patents and patent applications are directed to our Skinfusion technology or aspects thereof including certain transdermal delivery systems having an active adhesive matrix and methods of using such transdermal delivery systems for controlling fertility. We also rely on manufacturing trade secrets and careful monitoring of our proprietary information to protect aspects of our business that are not amenable to, or that we do not consider appropriate for, patent protection.

        Our success will depend significantly on our ability to obtain new patents and maintain existing patents and other proprietary protection for commercially important technology, inventions and know-how related to our business, defend and enforce our patents, preserve the confidentiality of our trade secrets and operate without infringing valid and enforceable patents and other proprietary rights of third parties.

        A third party may hold intellectual property, including patent rights, which are important or necessary to the development of our potential product candidates. It may be necessary for us to use the patented or proprietary technology of third parties to commercialize our potential product candidates, in which case we would be required to obtain a license from these third parties on commercially reasonable terms. If we were not able to obtain a license on commercially reasonable terms, our business could be harmed, possibly materially.

        We plan to continue to expand our intellectual property estate by filing patent applications directed to novel and nonobvious transdermal contraceptive products. The active pharmaceutical ingredients, or API, in our potential product candidates are generic and therefore our patents do not include claims directed solely to the API. We anticipate seeking additional patent protection in the United States and internationally for additional transdermal delivery systems and their methods of use.

        The patent positions of pharmaceutical companies like us are generally uncertain and involve complex legal, scientific and factual questions. In addition, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and the patent's scope can be modified after issuance. Consequently, we do not know whether any of our potential product candidates will remain protected by enforceable and valid patents. We cannot predict whether the patent applications we are currently pursuing will issue as patents in any particular jurisdiction or whether the claims of any issued patents will provide sufficient proprietary protection from competitors. Any patents that we hold may be challenged, circumvented or invalidated by third parties.

        Because patent applications in the United States and certain other jurisdictions generally are maintained in secrecy for 18 months, and since publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature often lags behind actual discoveries, we cannot be certain of our entitlement to patent rights in the inventions covered in our issued patents and pending patent applications. Moreover, we may have to participate in interference proceedings declared by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, USPTO, to determine priority of invention, or in post-grant challenge proceedings in the USPTO or foreign patent offices such as oppositions, reexamination, inter-partes review, post grant review, or a derivation proceeding, that challenge our entitlement to an invention or the patentability of one or more claims in our patent applications or issued patents. Such proceedings could result in substantial cost, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us.

        More specifically, Twirla® is a transdermal contraceptive hormone delivery system. The system is a patch for application to the skin and contains two API, the hormones LNG, which is a synthetic progestin, and EE, a synthetic estrogen. The API are formulated with a combination of skin penetration enhancers, which promote penetration through the dermis and into the bloodstream, such

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that effective blood levels of the active agents are achieved to suppress ovulation and thereby prevent pregnancy. One of our other potential product candidates, AG890, is similar to Twirla, except that it contains only a single API, LNG.

        In both our Twirla product candidate line and in AG890, the active adhesive system consists of the active ingredients in a polyacrylate adhesive polymer matrix comprising the permeation enhancers dimethylsulfoxide, ethyl lactate, capric acid and lauryl lactate. The active blend is coated onto a release liner, and a backing layer is added on top of the active blend. The peripheral adhesive system, also called the overlay, comprising three layers is added onto the backing layer. The overlay comprises a polyisobutylene adhesive layer, an acrylic adhesive layer, and an overlay covering. The overlay covering is a commercially available silk-like polyester fabric. The adhesive components of the overlay, in addition to their adhesive function, create an in situ seal with the disposable release liner, trapping evaporable solvents in the active blend, thereby extending the usable shelf life of the product candidate and contributing to the comfort and effectiveness of the transdermal system during use. Prior to use of any of our potential product candidates, the release liner is removed by the user and discarded. The patch is then applied to the skin.

        Eight U.S. patents, issuing from two patent families, have been or are being submitted to the FDA for listing in the Orange Book upon approval of Twirla. These patents include claims directed to transdermal delivery systems having an active adhesive matrix and claims directed to methods of controlling fertility by applying such transdermal delivery systems, and in all cases including a skin permeation enhancer. One of our eight issued U.S. patents will expire November 22, 2020. Four will expire March 14, 2021. Two will expire July 10, 2028. The eighth will expire August 26, 2028.

        U.S. Patent No. 7,045,145 is directed to the adhesive matrix of the transdermal delivery system used in Twirla and expires in March 2021; product-by-process claims cover patches manufactured by drying wet formulations of the active adhesive matrix. U.S. Patent No. 7,384,650, U.S. Patent No. 8,221,784, and U.S. Patent No. 8,221,785 are all directed to the dry final product formulation of the transdermal delivery system used in Twirla and expire in March 2021. U.S. Patent No. 8,221,784 covers both Twirla and AG890. Foreign counterparts to these patents have been granted in China, Hong Kong, India, Israel, and Mexico. U.S. Patent No. 8,883,196 is directed to a method of controlling fertility by applying Twirla or AG890 once each week for three weeks followed by a one-week rest interval, or in an extended regimen without a rest interval for a selected number of weeks and expires November 22, 2020.

        U.S. Patent Nos. 8,246,978, 8,747,888, and 9,050,348 are directed to structural features of the transdermal delivery system used in Twirla and AG890 patch design for transdermal delivery of hormones or of other drugs. As such, these patents protect a platform technology for delivery of LNG, EE, other hormones, and other drugs. These patents expire in July and August 2028. Foreign counterparts have been granted in Australia, Canada, China, Spain, France, Netherlands, Italy, UK, Ireland, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Russia and New Zealand and one counterpart remains pending in India

        U.S. Patent Nos. 9,198,876, 9,192,614, 9,198,919 and 9,198,920 and related patents and patent applications are directed to various novel dosing regimens, each of which employs transdermal delivery of contraceptive doses of EE and LNG during a "treatment interval" and transdermal delivery of low dose EE and low dose LNG during a "withdrawal interval". Foreign counterparts are pending or granted in Europe and Canada. We expect these patents will be relevant to two of the products in our pipeline, AG200-SP and AG200-ER, as well as other new potential regimens.

        U.S. Patent No. 9,364,487 is directed to a composition and device for transdermal delivery of LNG for P-only therapy. The composition contains an anti-oxidant to protect the progestin against oxidative degradation caused by other components of the composition. Foreign counterparts are pending or

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granted in Canada, Europe, India, Japan and Mexico. We expect this patent to be relevant to at least one product in our pipeline, AG890.

        We have patent applications pending in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions directed to novel formulations and methods designed to improve efficacy and modulate side effects of administration, as well as to provide personalized dosing based on body weight or BMI. We also have a pending United States patent application directed to packaging for transdermal systems containing certain skin permeation enhancers.

Regulatory Exclusivity

        Our NDA for Twirla was submitted under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA. Even though Twirla utilizes API that were previously approved in the United States, Twirla utilizes LNG in a new dosage form, specifically a transdermal patch, and we provided new clinical data essential to approval in our NDA to establish the safety and efficacy of Twirla. Therefore, we received three years of U.S. marketing exclusivity for Twirla under the Hatch Waxman Act. The exclusivity prohibits the FDA from approving ANDAs and 505(b)(2) NDAs for the conditions of the Twirla approval. We will consider whether we are going to pursue patent term restoration, however, we do not expect to receive patent term restoration because, as explained above, Twirla is not the first approval of the API.

Employees

        As of December 31, 2019, we had 15 full time employees, including six in research and development and nine in general and administrative roles. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We have not experienced a work stoppage and consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Corporate Information

        We were incorporated in Delaware in December 1997. Our offices are located at 101 Poor Farm Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, and our telephone number is (609) 683-1880.

Available Information

        Our corporate website address is www.agiletherapeutics.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the inclusion of our website address in this annual report is an inactive textual reference only. We make our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such reports with, or furnish such reports to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC.

        We are a "smaller reporting company," as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. Since the aggregate market value of our voting stock held by non-affiliates was less than $75 million on June 28, 2019, we are a non-accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC, and an auditor attestation report over Internal Controls over Financial Reporting does not need to be included in the 2019 Form 10-K.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors.

        Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors set forth below as well as the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other public filings in evaluating our business. Any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. The risks described below are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently view to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock would likely decline.

Risks Related to the Commercialization of Twirla

We are significantly dependent on the commercial success of Twirla, our only approved product. If we are unable to successfully commercialize Twirla, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects and value of our common stock will be materially adversely affected.

        Twirla will be the first product that we commercialize. The rest of our pipeline of potential product candidates are in earlier stages of clinical development and will require additional clinical studies and product development and funding in order to advance towards commercialization, which could take considerable time. In addition, we will require additional capital for the validation of our commercial manufacturing process and commercial launch of Twirla. We will not be able to commercially launch Twirla until validation is complete and we may not be successful in completing validation within expected timelines or at all. We will also require capital to develop and initiate post-marketing studies of Twirla. Our ability to generate revenues and become profitable will depend in large part on the commercial success of Twirla. Potential prescribers of Twirla include physicians, nurse practitioners, or NPs, physician's assistants, or PAs, and pharmacists. Registered Pharmacists are authorized to prescribe contraceptives in some states, and other states have pending legislation that would allow pharmacists to prescribe contraceptives. If Twirla does not gain an adequate level of acceptance among prescribers, patients and third parties, we may not generate significant product revenues or become profitable. Market acceptance of Twirla by prescribers, patients and third-party payors will depend on a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:

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        For example, prescribers and patients may not be immediately receptive to a transdermal contraceptive system, as opposed to a pill or any other method, and may be slow to adopt it as an accepted treatment for the prevention of pregnancy. In addition, even though we believe Twirla has advantages over other treatment options, because no adequate head-to-head trials comparing the safety and efficacy of Twirla to the competing approved patch or other contraceptive products have been conducted, we cannot make claims that Twirla is safer or more effective than the currently approved patch product, or other contraceptive products, without conducting a supportive head-to-head postmarketing study. Moreover, we will not be able to make any other Twirla marketing or promotional claims to the extent that they are inconsistent with the Twirla FDA-approved label or are not otherwise supported. The availability of numerous inexpensive generic forms of contraceptive products may also limit acceptance of Twirla among prescribers, patients and third-party payors. If Twirla does not achieve an adequate level of acceptance among prescribers, patients and third-party payors, we may not generate significant product revenues or become profitable, and the value of our common stock may suffer.

We may not be able to successfully commercialize Twirla, and the revenue that we generate from its sales, if any, may be limited.

        The commercial success of Twirla will depend upon the contraceptive market landscape as well as acceptance and uptake of Twirla by prescribers, patients and third-party payors.

        Risks related to the contraceptive market landscape include:

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        The degree of acceptance and uptake of Twirla by prescribers, patients and third-party payors will depend upon a number of factors, including:

        In addition, we may face additional generic or other drug product competition sooner than we anticipate for Twirla or our potential product candidates, which would potentially limit their commercial success. We believe that Twirla is eligible for three years of FDA marketing exclusivity for Twirla. The FDCA provides a period of three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, Section 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA for a drug product that contains a previously approved active moiety, if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability or bioequivalence studies, were conducted or sponsored by the applicant and are determined by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application. This three-year marketing exclusivity, however, does not protect drug products from all competition. For instance, it does not protect against the approval of a full NDA. It also would only protect against the approval of a product that contains the same conditions of approval as Twirla. We, however, may not receive the three-year exclusivity for them, and, even if we do, it may not adequately protect us from competition. Competition that Twirla and our potential product candidates may face from generic or similar versions of the same or similar products could materially and adversely impact our future revenue, profitability and cash flows and substantially limit our ability to obtain a return on the investments we have made in Twirla or our potential product candidates.

        If Twirla does not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by prescribers, third-party payors and patients, we may not generate sufficient revenue and we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability. Our efforts to educate prescribers, patients and third-party payors on the benefits of Twirla may require significant resources and may never be successful. Even if we are able to demonstrate and maintain a competitive advantage over our competitors and become profitable, if the market for hormonal contraceptives fails to achieve expected future growth or decreases, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue or sustain profitability. Our ability to generate sufficient revenue from Twirla will also be dependent on our ability to support the commercial demand for Twirla and we cannot assure you that we along with our manufacturing partner Corium will be able to complete validation of our commercial manufacturing successfully and in a timely manner, and, ultimately, to commercially market Twirla. We also cannot assure that we and Corium will be able to manufacture sufficient quantities of Twirla in order to meet commercial demand.

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It will be difficult for us to profitably sell Twirla if coverage and reimbursement for such product is limited.

        Market acceptance and sales of Twirla will depend on coverage and reimbursement policies and may be affected by future healthcare reform measures. Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels for approved medications. A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry is cost containment. Government authorities and these third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. We cannot be sure that coverage or reimbursement will be available for Twirla and, if coverage is available, we cannot be sure of the level of reimbursement. Even when a payor determines that a product is eligible for reimbursement, the payor may set a reimbursement rate that is too low to support a profitable sales price for the product. Subsequent approvals of competitive products could result in a detrimental change to the reimbursement of our products. Reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, Twirla. Numerous generic products may be available at lower prices than branded therapy products, such as Twirla, which may also reduce the likelihood and level of reimbursement for Twirla. If coverage and reimbursement are not available or are available only at limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize Twirla, which would adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and the value of our common stock.

If we are unable to establish effective marketing and sales capabilities for Twirla or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell Twirla, we may be unable to generate product revenues.

        At present, we have no sales personnel and a limited number of marketing personnel. Initially, we do not plan to establish our own sales force. Rather, we plan to engage a contract sales organization in the United States and, depending on our available capital resources, we plan to also hire a limited number of additional marketing personnel in the second and third quarters of 2020. At the time of our anticipated commercial launch of Twirla, our sales and marketing team will have worked together for only a limited period of time. We cannot guarantee that we will be successful in marketing Twirla in the United States.

        We may not be able to establish our own marketing capabilities or a contract sales force in a cost-effective manner or realize a positive return on this investment. In addition, we will have to compete with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to recruit, hire, train and retain sales and marketing personnel. Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize Twirla in the United States include:

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        If we are not successful in recruiting sales and marketing personnel or in building a sales and marketing infrastructure, or if we do not successfully enter into appropriate collaboration arrangements, we will have difficulty commercializing Twirla, which would adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

        If we intend to commercialize Twirla outside the United States, we will likely enter into collaboration agreements with pharmaceutical partners, and we may have limited or no control over the sales, marketing and distribution activities of these third parties. Our future revenues may depend on the success of the efforts of these third parties.

        To the extent that we rely on, or partner with, third parties to commercialize Twirla, we may receive less revenue than if we commercialized these products ourselves. In addition, we would have less control over the sales efforts of any other third parties involved in our commercialization efforts. We, however, will remain responsible for the conduct of any contract sales force, which could expose us to legal and regulatory enforcement actions and liability. In the event that we are unable to partner with a third-party marketing and sales organization, our ability to generate product revenues may be limited in the United States, internationally or both.

If estimates of the size of the potential market for Twirla are overstated or data we have used to identify physicians is inaccurate, our ability to earn revenue to support our business could be materially adversely affected.

        We have relied on a number of external sources, as well as market research funded by us and internal analyses and calculations, to estimate the potential market opportunity for Twirla in the United States. We have not independently verified the externally sourced information used to develop the estimates for the potential market for Twirla, and their accuracy and completeness cannot be assured. Similarly, our internal analyses and calculations are based upon analysis of the current and expected future U.S. contraceptive market and management's understanding and assessment of numerous inputs and market conditions, including, but not limited to, the addressable market segment for combined hormonal contraceptives and the reimbursement status of contraceptives under the federal Affordable Care Act and similar state laws. These understandings and assessments necessarily require assumptions subject to significant judgment and may prove to be inaccurate. As a result, our estimates of the size of the potential market for Twirla could prove to be overstated, perhaps materially.

        In addition, we are relying on third party data to identify the healthcare providers who prescribe contraception in the U.S. and to determine how to deploy resources to market to those healthcare providers; however, we may not be marketing to the appropriate physicians and may therefore be limiting our market opportunity.

        We may develop estimates with respect to market opportunities for potential product candidates in the future, and such estimates would be subject to similar risks. Even if we obtain regulatory approval for one or more potential product candidates, we may be unable to commercialize the product on a scale sufficient to generate significant revenue, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and the value of our common stock.

The proportion of the contraceptive market that is made up of generic products could continue to increase, making introduction of a branded contraceptive difficult and expensive.

        The proportion of the U.S. market that is made up of generic products has been increasing over time. For example, in 2005, generic contraceptive products held 49% of prescription volume and 36% of sales and, by 2019, those values had risen to 88% and 43%, respectively. Recently, Congress and the FDA have taken steps to increase generic competition in the market. If this trend continues, it may be more difficult to introduce Twirla as a branded contraceptive at a price that will maximize our revenue and profits. Also, there may be additional marketing costs to introduce Twirla in order to overcome the

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trend towards generics and to gain access to reimbursement by payors. If we are unable to introduce Twirla at a price that is commensurate with that of current branded contraceptive products, or we are unable to gain reimbursement from payors for Twirla, or if patients are unwilling to pay any price differential between Twirla and a generic contraceptive, our revenues will be limited. For example, in light of the introduction of the branded generic version of the Ortho Evra product by Mylan Inc. in April 2014, and the subsequent discontinuation of distribution of Ortho Evra in October 2014 by Janssen we may have to take additional measures in order to be competitive and gain market share. For example, we may increase the rebates available to commercial payors or we may provide incentives to consumers covered by non-governmental payors, such as coupons or rebates, in order to make up for the difference in the co-payment for Twirla and the generic patch product.

Prescribers, patients and payors may not adopt a new contraceptive patch due to concerns based upon the prior experience with or perception of the previously marketed contraceptive patch and its currently marketed generic equivalent product.

        The Ortho Evra® contraceptive patch, or Evra, was introduced in early 2002 and was the first FDA-approved contraceptive patch. The following is a brief history of the Evra market experience:

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        We have conducted pharmacokinetic studies of Twirla to demonstrate that it delivers a daily EE dose of approximately 30 micrograms, which is less than that delivered by Xulane, according to its FDA approved label. However, because none of our completed Phase 3 clinical trials studied Twirla in a head-to-head comparison with Xulane, we will not be able to make comparative claims regarding the EE exposure, safety, or efficacy of Twirla as compared to Xulane without conducting a supportive head-to-head post-marketing study., As a result, uptake and usage of Twirla and our related revenues could ultimately be limited.

Twirla could develop unexpected safety, efficacy or quality concerns, which would likely have a material adverse effect on us.

        Twirla was approved in the U.S. based on the SECURE clinical trial, in which patients were enrolled for 13 cycles of treatment. Twirla will now be used by larger numbers of patients, potentially for longer periods of time, and we and others (including regulatory agencies and private payors) will endeavor to collect extensive information on the efficacy and safety of Twirla by monitoring its use in the marketplace. In addition, we will endeavor to conduct a long-term post marketing safety study required by the FDA to compare the risks for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE) in new users of Twirla to new users of oral combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) and new users of Xulane in U.S. women of reproductive age. Further, we may conduct additional trials in connection with lifecycle management programs for Twirla. New safety or efficacy data from both market surveillance and our post-marketing clinical trials may result in negative consequences including:

        Furthermore, the discovery of significant problems with a product similar to Twirla that implicate (or are perceived to implicate) the entire class of products could have an adverse impact on our ability to commercialize Twirla. Any of these circumstances could reduce Twirla's market acceptance and would inhibit or delay our ability to commercialize Twirla or gain and/or sustain market share, any of which would adversely affect sales of Twirla.

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We face competition from other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and our operating results will suffer if we fail to compete effectively.

        The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are intensely competitive. We would have significant competition with contraceptive products already in the marketplace, many of which have substantially greater name recognition, commercial infrastructures and financial, technical and personnel resources than we have. Any new product that competes with a previously approved product may need to demonstrate compelling advantages in efficacy, convenience, tolerability or safety to be commercially successful. In addition, new products developed by others could emerge as competitors to Twirla. If we are not able to compete effectively against our current and future competitors, our business will not grow, and our financial condition and operations will suffer.

        Our potential competitors include, but are not limited to, large, well-established pharmaceutical companies, and specialty pharmaceutical sales and marketing companies. These companies include Merck & Co., Inc., or Merck, which markets Nuvaring®, TherapeuticsMD, Inc., or TherapeuticsMD, which has licensed and will market Annovera®, a recently approved contraceptive ring, Allergan, Inc., or Allergan, which markets several branded and generic contraceptives including Minastrin® 24, LoLoestrin®, and Taytulla®, Bayer AG, or Bayer, which markets Beyaz®, Yaz®, Yasmin®, and Natazia®, and Mylan N.V., which markets Xulane®, a generic version of Ortho Evra. Additionally, several generic manufacturers currently market and continue to introduce new generic contraceptives, including Sandoz International GmbH, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

        There are other contraceptive product candidates in development that, if approved, would potentially compete with Twirla. Specifically, Bayer has a contraceptive patch approved in the European Union, or E.U. Bayer entered into a license and distribution agreement for the sale of this contraceptive patch in Europe with Gedeon Richter Ltd. Other companies that have new hormonal contraceptive product candidates in various stages of development include Allergan (progestin-only vaginal ring for which they received a CRL from the FDA), The Population Council in collaboration with Antares Pharma, Inc. (transdermal gel contraceptive in Phase 2), Mithra Pharmaceuticals SA (combination oral contraceptive in Phase 3), and Panterhei Bioscience (combination oral contraceptive in Phase 2).

Sales of Twirla may be adversely affected by the consolidation among wholesale drug distributors and the growth of large retail drug store chains.

        The network through which we will sell Twirla and our potential product candidates, if and when approved, has undergone significant consolidation marked by mergers and acquisitions among wholesale distributors and the growth of large retail drugstore chains. As a result, a small number of large distributors control a significant share of the market. In 2018, three companies generated about 95% of all revenues from drug distribution in the United States, and in 2019, the top five chain pharmacy companies owned about 35% of all retail pharmacy outlets. Consolidation of drug wholesalers and retailers, as well as any increased pricing pressure that those entities face from their customers, including the U.S. government, may increase pricing pressure and place other competitive pressures on drug manufacturers, including us.

Existing and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to commercialize Twirla and may affect the prices we may obtain.

        In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability to profitably sell Twirla.

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        Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products. We do not know whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA's regulations, guidance or interpretations will change, or what the impact of such changes on our ability to market of Twirla may be.

        In March 2010, President Obama signed into law the ACA, a sweeping law intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for the healthcare and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the healthcare industry and impose additional healthcare policy reforms. The ACA, among other things, increased the Medicaid rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program for both branded and generic drugs, extended the rebate program to certain individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, addressed new methodologies by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are line extension products and expanded the 340B drug discount program (excluding orphan drugs) to other entities. Further, the ACA imposed a significant annual tax on companies that manufacture or import branded prescription drug products. Substantial new provisions affecting compliance have also been enacted, which may require us to modify our business practices with regard to healthcare practitioners.

        Of particular relevance to our business is the ACA requirement that all health plans, with limited exceptions, cover certain preventive services for women with no cost-sharing, which means no deductible, no co-insurance and no co-payments by the patient. Contraceptive methods and counseling, including all FDA-approved contraceptive methods as prescribed, are included in the ACA mandate, and this has come to be known as the "contraceptive mandate." Under the ACA, payors are only required to cover one favored product within each contraceptive "method" without imposing any cost-sharing obligations on the patient. For example, the introduction of a generic contraceptive patch product with a price that will likely be lower than the price of Twirla makes it less clear that Twirla would have a preferred position, such as coverage without a co-insurance payment, under the ACA contraceptive mandate. Other products within the same method may also be covered, but payors are allowed to use reasonable medical management techniques, such as the application of cost-sharing obligations. An amendment was issued that provided an exemption to the contraceptive mandate for group health plans established or maintained by religious employers. However, the contraceptive mandate has remained controversial, with several legal challenges filed around the country. In June 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that owners of certain private companies can object to the contraceptive mandate on religious grounds and in November 2015, the Court agreed to hear arguments from non-profit organizations requesting similar treatment. In October 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announced it will seek to issue regulations that will allow all companies to qualify for the exemption from the contraceptive mandate on the basis of religious and moral grounds. While there is an injunction against the administration prohibiting it from implementing these rules, the ultimate outcome of that litigation, which is currently in front of the Supreme Court, cannot be predicted. The ACA appears likely to continue to apply pressure on pharmaceutical pricing, especially under the Medicare program, and may also increase our regulatory burdens and operating costs. Further, on January 20, 2017, the current administration signed an Executive Order directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the ACA to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the ACA that would impose a fiscal or regulatory burden on states, individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices, among others. There are several proposals to reform the federal healthcare laws being advocated and it is still unclear whether such reform efforts will succeed and if so, which proposals will ultimately be successful. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the full effect of the ACA or any other healthcare reform efforts on our business.

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        In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation's automatic reduction in funding to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and will stay in effect through 2024 unless additional Congressional action is taken. On January 2, 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. We expect that additional federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, and in turn could significantly reduce the projected value of Twirla and our potential product candidates and reduce our profitability.

        Moreover, the Drug Quality and Security Act imposes obligations on manufacturers of pharmaceutical products related to product tracking and tracing. Among the requirements of this legislation, manufacturers are required to provide certain information regarding the drug product to individuals and entities to which product ownership is transferred, are required to label the drug product with a product identifier and are required to keep certain records regarding the drug product. The transfer of information to subsequent product owners by manufacturers is required to be done electronically. Manufacturers must also verify that purchasers of the manufacturers' products are appropriately licensed. Further, under this legislation, manufacturers have drug product investigation, quarantine, disposition, and FDA and trading partner notification responsibilities related to counterfeit, diverted, stolen and intentionally adulterated products, as well as products that are the subject of fraudulent transactions or which are otherwise unfit for distribution such that they would be reasonably likely to result in serious health consequences or death.

        Other measures have also been taken by Congress, the Administration, and administrative agencies to increase drug competition and thus, decrease drug prices. By example, in 2019 FDA introduced a proposed rule and draft guidance to facilitate drug importation. Congress also passed a bill requiring sponsors of NDA approved products to provide sufficient quantities of drug product on commercially reasonable market based terms to entities developing generic and similar drug products. New legislative and regulatory efforts could ultimately have an adverse impact on our business and results of operation.

Third-party coverage and reimbursement and healthcare cost containment initiatives and treatment guidelines may constrain our future revenues.

        Our ability to successfully market Twirla will depend in part on the level of coverage and reimbursement that government authorities, private health insurers and other organizations provide for Twirla and contraceptives in general. Countries in which Twirla is sold through reimbursement schemes under national health insurance programs frequently require that manufacturers and sellers of pharmaceutical products obtain governmental approval of initial prices and any subsequent price increases. In certain countries, including the United States, government-funded and private medical care plans can exert significant indirect pressure on prices. We may not be able to sell Twirla profitably if adequate prices are not approved or coverage and reimbursement are unavailable or limited in scope. Increasingly, third party payors attempt to contain healthcare costs in ways that are likely to impact our development of products including:

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We may never seek or receive marketing approval for or commercialize Twirla outside the United States.

        In order to market Twirla outside the United States, we must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of other countries regarding safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, clinical trials and commercial sales, pricing and distribution of Twirla. The time required to obtain approval in other countries might differ from and be longer than the time required to obtain FDA approval. The marketing approval process in other countries may include all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval in the United States, as well as other risks. For example, legislation analogous to Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA in the United States may not exist in other countries. In territories where data is not freely available, we may not have the ability to commercialize Twirla, or any products approved in the future, without negotiating the rights from third parties to refer to their clinical data in our regulatory applications, which could require the expenditure of significant additional funds. Further, we may be unable to obtain rights to the necessary clinical data and may be required to develop our own proprietary safety and efficacy dossiers. In addition, in many countries outside the United States, it is required that a product receive pricing and reimbursement approval before the product can be commercialized. This can result in substantial delays in the advancement of our products in such countries. Further, product labeling requirements outside the United States may be different and inconsistent with the U.S. labeling, potentially negatively affecting our ability to market in countries outside the United States.

        Marketing approval in one country does not ensure marketing approval in another, but failure or delay in obtaining marketing approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in others. In addition, we may be subject to fines, suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals, product recalls, seizure of products, operating restrictions, and criminal prosecution if we fail to comply with applicable foreign regulatory requirements. If we fail to comply with regulatory requirements in international markets or to obtain and maintain required approvals, our ability to market to our full target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full marketing potential of our products will be harmed.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Capital

We have incurred operating losses in each year since our inception and expect to continue to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future. Management has concluded that these factors raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

        We have incurred losses in each year since our inception in December 1997. Our net loss was $18.6 million, $19.8 million and $28.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. As of December 31, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $260.4 million. In February 2020, we entered into a Credit Agreement and Guaranty with Perceptive Credit Holdings III, LP, or Perceptive, for a senior secured term loan facility of up to $35 million, which we refer to as the Perceptive Credit Agreement. We believe that our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019, along with the proceeds of the Perceptive Credit Agreement we have received to date, will be sufficient to meet our projected operating requirements through the end of 2020. They will not be sufficient to fund our current and planned operations through the 12 months following the date

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on which this Annual Report on Form 10-K is filed, which raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern may create negative reactions to the price of our common stock and we may have a more difficult time obtaining financing in the future.

        Specialty pharmaceutical product development is a speculative undertaking, involves a substantial degree of risk and is a capital-intensive business. We expect to incur expenses without corresponding revenues until we are able to sell Twirla in significant quantities, which may not happen. We have devoted most of our financial resources to research and development, including our non-clinical development activities and clinical trials. We expect we will need to incur additional expenses as we complete the qualification and validation of our commercial manufacturing process, initiate pre-launch commercial activities, commercially launch Twirla, advance our other potential product candidates and expand our research and development programs. We will require additional capital to fund our operating needs beyond 2020, including among other items, the completion of our commercial plan for Twirla, which primarily includes validation of our commercial manufacturing process, as well as the commercial launch of Twirla and advancing the development of our other potential product candidates. We may not be able to obtain sufficient additional funding to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce, or even terminate, our operations. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through sales of common stock, convertible preferred stock and convertible promissory notes and to a lesser extent, through term loans and government grants. Our potential product candidates will also require the completion of regulatory review, significant marketing efforts and substantial investment before they can provide us with any revenue.

        We expect that our expenses will increase as we prepare for the commercial launch of Twirla. As a result, we expect to continue to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future, and these losses may increase. We are uncertain when or if we will be able to achieve or sustain profitability. If we achieve profitability in the future, we may not be able to sustain profitability in subsequent periods. Any failure to become and remain profitable would impair our ability to sustain operations and adversely affect the price of our common stock and our ability to raise additional capital. We are significantly dependent on the success of Twirla, and if we do not achieve the commercial success of Twirla and/or are unable to obtain additional funding, we will need to reassess our operating capital needs and may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce, or even terminate, our operations.

We have never been profitable. Currently, we have no products available for commercial sale, no source of revenue pending the commercial launch of Twirla, and we may never become profitable.

        We have never been profitable and do not expect to be profitable in the foreseeable future. We have no products currently available for commercial sale, and will not have any products available for sale until the commercial launch of Twirla, which we currently anticipate will commence in the fourth quarter of 2020. To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales. Even if we are able to commercialize Twirla or any other potential product candidate, there can be no assurance that we will generate significant revenues or ever achieve profitability. Our ability to generate product revenue depends on a number of factors, including our ability to:

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        In addition, because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product commercialization and product candidate development, we are unable to predict the timing or amount of increased expenses, or when, or if, we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. In addition, our expenses could increase beyond our current expectations and resources if we are required to provide increased rebates to managed care payors, experience set-backs in the validation of our commercial manufacturing process, we need to increase our manufacturing capacity sooner than planned, experience disruptions in our manufacturing capabilities, or need to alter our marketing strategy. We anticipate incurring significant costs associated with the commercial launch of Twirla and our other potential product candidates, if approved.

        Our ability to become and remain profitable depends on our ability to generate revenue in excess of our increasing costs. Even if we are able to generate revenues from the sale of Twirla and our other potential product candidates, if approved, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations. If we fail to become profitable or obtain additional funding or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce our operations. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise additional capital, expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

Our operating activities may be restricted as a result of covenants related to the outstanding indebtedness under our loan agreement and we may be required to repay the outstanding indebtedness in an event of default, which could have a materially adverse effect on our business.

        In February 2020, we entered into the Perceptive Credit Agreement for a senior secured term loan facility of up to $35.0 million. A first tranche of $5 million was funded on execution of the Perceptive Credit Agreement. A second tranche of $15 million was funded as a result of the approval of Twirla by the FDA. Another $15 million tranche will be available upon the achievement of certain revenue milestones. The facility will be interest only until the third anniversary of the closing date.

        The Perceptive Credit Agreement subjects us to various customary affirmative and negative covenants, including requirements as to financial reporting and insurance, and restrictions on our ability to dispose of our business or property, change our line of business, liquidate or dissolve, enter into any change in control transaction, merge or consolidate with any other entity or acquire all or substantially all the capital stock or property of another entity, incur additional indebtedness, incur certain types of liens on our property, including our intellectual property, pay any dividends or other distributions on our capital stock other than dividends payable solely in capital stock or redeem our capital stock. Our business may be adversely affected by these restrictions on our ability to operate our business. The Perceptive Credit Agreement also subjects us to financial covenants in respect of minimum liquidity and minimum product revenue.

        The loans provided under the Perceptive Credit Agreement are secured by substantially all of our property. We are currently required to make interest-only payments through February 2023. Loans under the Perceptive Credit Agreement currently bear interest at rate of 10.25% per annum plus one-month LIBOR, and mature on February 10, 2024.

        The Credit Agreement contains certain customary Events of Default, which include, among others, non-payment of principal, violation of covenants, inaccuracy of representations and warranties,

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bankruptcy and insolvency events, material judgments, certain regulatory-related events and events constituting a Change of Control (as defined in the Credit Agreement). We may not have enough available cash or be able to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings to repay such indebtedness at the time any such event of default occurs. In that case, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our potential product candidate development or commercialization efforts or grant to others rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves. Perceptive could also exercise its rights as collateral agent to take possession and dispose of the collateral securing the loan for its benefit, which collateral includes substantially all of our property. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected as a result of any of these events.

We will need to obtain additional financing to fund our operations and, if we are unable to obtain such financing, we may be unable to commercialize Twirla or to complete the development and commercialization of our other potential product candidates.

        Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception. From our inception to December 31, 2019, we have cumulative net cash flows used by operating activities of $227.3 million. We will need to obtain additional capital to fund our future operations, including the commercialization of Twirla. We will need to obtain additional financing to develop and commercialize our other potential product candidates and to complete the development of any additional product candidates we might acquire. Moreover, our fixed expenses such as rent, interest expense and other contractual commitments are substantial and are expected to increase in the future.

        Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

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        Until we can generate a sufficient amount of revenue, we may finance future cash needs through public or private equity offerings, license agreements, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and marketing or distribution arrangements. Additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available, we may be required to delay or reduce the scope of our commercialization efforts or one or more of our research or development programs. We may seek to access the public or private capital markets whenever conditions are favorable, even if we do not have an immediate need for additional capital at that time. In addition, if we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams or potential product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.

        Our planned timeline for the commercial launch of Twirla and our ability to fund our operations through the period of time necessary to successfully commercialize Twirla could be adversely affected based on our inability to timely and successfully complete the validation of our commercial manufacturing process, the failure of Twirla to gain acceptance in the marketplace, our inability to successfully compete with other contraceptive products and the need to provide higher rebates in order to gain a competitive formulary status. We may not be able to obtain sufficient additional funding to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce, or even terminate, our operations. Adequate additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when needed or on attractive terms, or we are unable to enter into strategic collaborations, we then may be unable to complete the commercialization of Twirla and may also be required to further cut operating costs, delay, reduce or eliminate our research and development programs or future commercialization efforts or even terminate our operations, which may involve seeking bankruptcy protection. Our forecast of the period of time through which our financial resources will be adequate to support our operating requirements is a forward-looking statement and involves risks and uncertainties, and actual results could vary as a result of a number of factors, including the factors discussed elsewhere in this "Risk Factors" section. We have based this estimate on a number of assumptions that may prove to be wrong and changing circumstances beyond our control may cause us to consume capital more rapidly than we currently anticipate. If we choose to accelerate elements of our commercial plan or we encounter any unforeseen events that affect our business plan, we may choose to raise additional funds to provide us with additional working capital. Our inability to obtain additional funding when we need it could seriously harm our business and we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce, or even terminate, our operations.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing stockholders or restrict our operations.

        We may seek additional capital through a combination of private and public equity offerings, debt financings and strategic collaborations. The sale of additional equity or convertible debt securities could result in the issuance of additional shares of our capital stock and could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed payment obligations and could also result in certain restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. We cannot guarantee that

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future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we will be prevented from pursuing research and development efforts. This could harm our business, operating results and financial condition and cause the price of our common stock to fall.

Risks Relating to Maintaining Regulatory Compliance and Approval of Twirla

We remain subject to substantial ongoing regulatory requirements related to Twirla, and failure to comply with these requirements could lead to penalties, including withdrawal from the market, suspension, or withdrawal of product approval.

        Twirla is subject to ongoing regulatory requirements governing the manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, import, export, safety surveillance, advertising, marketing promotion, recordkeeping, reporting of adverse events and other post-market information, and further development, including ongoing requirements for costly post-marketing studies, including Phase 4 clinical trials or post-market surveillance. For example, as part of the FDA's approval of Twirla, the FDA has required a long-term post-marketing safety study to assess and describe the risks of Twirla, including the risk of VTE and ATE compared to oral combined hormonal contraceptives and Xulane. This study is similar to one recently required by FDA for another contraceptive product. We will also conduct a second small post-marketing study, required by FDA, to assess Twirla's residual drug content, strength, and adhesion. The results generated in these post-approval clinical trials could result in loss of marketing approval, changes in product labeling, or new or increased concerns about side effects or efficacy of a product. Failure to comply with post-market study requirements can also result in enforcement action or FDA removal of the product from the market.

        Other post-approval requirements include registration with the FDA, listing of our drug products, payment of annual fees, as well as continued compliance with cGCPs for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval. Application holders must notify the FDA, and depending on the nature of the change, obtain FDA pre-approval for product manufacturing changes. In addition, manufacturers of drug products and their facilities are subject to continual review and routine inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with the FDA's manufacturing requirements relating to quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents. If we are found to be noncompliant with applicable requirements, the FDA and other government authorities may issue a Warning Letter or Untitled Letter, or take other regulatory action such as a product seizure and detention, withdrawal of product approval, requests for a recall, refusal to allow the import or export of the product, criminal or civil penalties, injunction against or restriction of product manufacture or distribution, consent decrees, disgorgement, restitution, clinical holds or terminations of clinical trials, FDA debarment, debarment from government contracts or refusal of orders under existing contracts, exclusion from federal healthcare programs, corporate integrity agreements, or imprisonment.

        The FDA has the authority to require a REMS after approval, which may impose further requirements or restrictions on the information that patients must be provided, distribution or use of an approved drug, such as limiting prescribing to certain physicians or medical centers that have undergone specialized training, limiting treatment to patients who meet certain safe-use criteria or requiring treated patients to enroll in a registry.

        With respect to sales and marketing activities by us or any future collaborative partner, advertising and promotional materials must comply with the FDA's rules in addition to other applicable federal and local laws in the United States and similar legal requirements in other countries. In the United States, the distribution of product samples to physicians must comply with the requirements of the U.S. Prescription Drug Marketing Act and is subject to certain requirements. We may also be subject, directly or indirectly through our customers and partners, to various fraud and abuse laws, including,

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without limitation, the U.S. Anti-Kickback Statute, U.S. False Claims Act and similar state laws, which impact, among other things, our proposed sales, marketing and scientific/educational efforts. If we participate in the U.S. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, the Federal Supply Schedule of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, or other government drug programs, we will be subject to complex laws and regulations regarding reporting and payment obligations. All of these activities are also potentially subject to U.S. federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws. Similar requirements exist in many of these areas in other countries.

        In addition, our product labeling, advertising and promotional materials for Twirla will be subject to regulatory requirements and continuing review by the FDA, Department of Justice, Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Inspector General, state attorneys general, members of Congress and the public. The FDA strictly regulates the promotional claims that may be made about prescription products. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA as reflected in the product's approved labeling, a practice known as off-label promotion. Physicians may nevertheless prescribe the products to their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label. If we are found to have promoted such off-label uses, we may become subject to significant liability and government fines. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant sanctions. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion and has enjoined several companies from engaging in off-label promotion. The FDA has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees of permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed.

        In the United States, engaging in the impermissible promotion of our products for off-label uses can also subject us to false claims litigation under federal and state statutes, which can lead to civil and criminal penalties and fines, agreements with governmental authorities that materially restrict the manner in which we promote or distribute drug products through, for example, corporate integrity agreements, and debarment, suspension or exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs. These false claims statutes include the federal civil False Claims Act, which allows any individual to bring a lawsuit against a pharmaceutical company on behalf of the federal government alleging submission of false or fraudulent claims or causing others to present such false or fraudulent claims, for payment by a federal program such as Medicare or Medicaid. If the government decides to intervene and prevails in the lawsuit, the individual will share in the proceeds from any fines or settlement funds. If the government declines to intervene, the individual may pursue the case alone. Since 2004, these False Claims Act lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies have increased significantly in volume and breadth, leading to several substantial civil and criminal settlements regarding certain sales practices promoting off-label drug uses involving fines that are as much as $3.0 billion. This growth in litigation has increased the risk that a pharmaceutical company will have to defend a false claim action, pay settlement fines or restitution, as well as criminal and civil penalties, agree to comply with burdensome reporting and compliance obligations, and be excluded from Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state healthcare programs. If we do not lawfully promote our approved products, we may become subject to such litigation and, if we do not successfully defend against such actions, those actions may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

        If we or a regulatory agency discover previously unknown problems with Twirla or with a potential product candidate, once approved, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, data integrity issues with regulatory filings, problems with the facility where the product is manufactured or we or our manufacturers or others working on our behalf fail to comply with applicable regulatory

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requirements after marketing approval, we may be subject to reporting obligations as well as the following administrative or judicial sanctions:

        The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to commercialize Twirla or our potential product candidates, if approved, and generate revenue. Adverse regulatory action, whether pre- or post-approval, can also potentially lead to product liability claims and increase our product liability exposure.

        Moreover, the FDA's policies may change, and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay the sale and promotion of Twirla or marketing approval and the sale and promotion of our potential product candidates, if approved. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any obtained marketing approval, which would adversely affect our business, prospects and ability to achieve or sustain profitability.

Our relationships with physicians, customers and payors will be subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, exclusion from government healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.

        Healthcare providers, physicians and others play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any products that we commercialize. Our arrangements with third-party payors,

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including government healthcare programs, and customers will expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute Twirla. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations include the following:

        Compliance with these and other federal and state laws applicable to the sale, marketing, and distribution of commercial drug products will require that we expend time and financial resources to maintain compliance. Additionally, the risk of our being found in violation of these laws and regulations is increased by the fact that many of them have not been fully interpreted by the relevant government or regulatory authorities or the courts, and their provisions are open to a variety of interpretations. Moreover, healthcare reform legislation has strengthened these laws. For example, the ACA, among other things, amended the intent requirement of the federal anti-kickback and criminal healthcare fraud statutes; such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of these statutes or specific intent to violate them. In addition, the ACA provides that the government

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may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal anti-kickback statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the false claims statutes.

        Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations are costly. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations, including anticipated activities conducted by our sales team in the sale of Twirla are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to a variety of different consequences, depending upon which law we are found to have violated, including significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, corporate integrity agreements, refusal of government contracts, contract debarment and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. If any of the physicians or other providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found to not be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs.

Risks Related to Manufacturing and Our Reliance on Third Parties

We have no manufacturing capacity and anticipate continued reliance on Corium, our third-party manufacturer, for the commercialization of Twirla and development of our potential product candidates. We may not have or be able to obtain sufficient quantities of Twirla or our potential product candidates to meet our required supply for commercialization or clinical trials, which would materially harm our business.

        Corium is a biopharmaceutical company that focuses on the development, manufacture, and commercialization of specialty transdermal products. In addition to partnering with other companies to manufacture transdermal products, Corium also engages in the research and development of its own proprietary transdermal drug delivery products. We rely on Corium, our third-party manufacturer, to produce commercial supplies and samples of Twirla. We also plan to rely on them for clinical and commercial supplies and samples of our potential product candidates, if approved. We do not own or operate, and have no plans to establish, any manufacturing facilities for Twirla or our potential product candidates. We lack the resources and the capabilities to manufacture Twirla or any of our potential product candidates on a clinical or commercial scale.

        As a third-party manufacturer, Corium's business operations are completely beyond our control, and we have no influence over whether Corium changes its management or its business operations or discontinues them entirely. For example, in 2018 Corium was acquired by Gurnet Holding Company, or GHC. Following completion of the transaction, Corium became a private company, wholly owned by GHC. Corium has announced that it plans to continue its operations in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where commercial supplies of Twirla are being manufactured.

        Furthermore, we do not control the manufacturing process of Twirla, and are completely dependent on Corium for compliance with the FDA's manufacturing regulatory requirements for the manufacture of Twirla, our potential product candidates and our other future products, if and when approved. As a manufacturer, Corium or other contract manufacturers that we may use are subject to routine inspection by regulatory authorities, including FDA. If Corium or other contract manufacturers that we may use cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA, they may receive adverse inspectional findings, may need to undertake costly and time consuming corrective actions, and may not be able to maintain regulatory approval for their manufacturing facilities.

        In addition, while the contracts with our manufacturers contain provisions to help ensure that quality standards and compliance with laws and regulations are maintained, we have no control over the ability of our contract manufacturers to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and

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qualified personnel. If in the future, the FDA withdraws its approval of Corium's facilities for the manufacture of Twirla, or if Corium experiences quality or other regulatory issues, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities that would also require FDA approval, which would significantly impact our ability to develop and sustain our market share of Twirla and to develop, and obtain, regulatory approval for and market our potential product candidates, if approved. Moreover, if our contract manufacturer cannot successfully manufacture materials that conform to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA, we may be subject to regulatory enforcement action such as adverse inspectional findings, Warning Letters, Untitled Letters, recall requests, withdrawal of product or investigational approvals, clinical holds or termination of clinical trials, refusals to approve pending applications, disgorgement, restitution, exclusion from federal healthcare programs, product seizures and detention, consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, criminal and civil penalties, including imprisonment, refusal to permit import or export of the product and injunction against or restriction of manufacture or distribution. If our contract manufacturer experiences issues in its manufacturing process or is unable to produce commercial supplies in adequate quantity and quality, our commercialization of Twirla could be delayed. An inability of our contract manufacturer to produce supplies in adequate quantity and quality of our Twirla and our potential product candidates could also delay our ability to conduct clinical trials. This may adversely impact our ability to fulfil our post-marketing study requirements for Twirla and obtain regulatory approval of our potential product candidates.

        The machinery and process to produce the commercial supply of Twirla must be qualified and validated, which is time-consuming and expensive, and this machinery is located within one manufacturing site and is customized to the particular manufacturing specifications of Twirla. If Corium is unable to qualify and validate this equipment and the processes in a timely manner and successfully produce validation batches, our ability to launch and commercialize Twirla will be compromised and we could require additional capital to complete the validation process. If this customized equipment malfunctions at any time during the production process, the time it may take Corium to secure replacement parts, to undertake repairs and to revalidate the equipment and process could limit our ability to meet the commercial demand for Twirla. Similar manufacturing conditions may also apply to our potential product candidates. This may increase the risk that the third-party manufacturer may not manufacture Twirla in accordance with the applicable regulatory requirements, that we may not have sufficient quantities of Twirla or our potential product candidates or that we may not have such quantities at an acceptable cost, any of which could delay, prevent, or impair the commercialization of Twirla and the development of our potential product candidates.

        Although we have manufacturing agreements with Corium for the commercial supply of Twirla, Corium and several of its suppliers of raw materials will be single source providers to us for a significant period of time. In particular, Corium manufactures Twirla using EE and LNG and components that it purchases from third parties, most of which are single source suppliers of the applicable material. We do not have any control over the process or timing of the acquisition of these raw materials by Corium. Corium's failure to timely obtain, or a disruption in the supply of, these raw materials could lead to an inability to adequately supply the commercial market with finished product of Twirla and in turn adversely affect our business.

        Because we outsource all of our manufacturing processes, there is no guarantee that there will be sufficient supplies to fulfill our requirements or that we may obtain such supplies on acceptable terms. Although Corium intends to enter into agreements with critical manufacturers, component fabricators and secondary service providers to secure commercial supply of Twirla, not all of such suppliers and service providers will be under contract. Any delays in obtaining adequate supplies of our potential product candidates could limit our ability to meet clinical and commercial demand for Twirla.

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        In addition, in the event Twirla achieves significant market share, Corium may not possess adequate manufacturing capabilities to meet market demand for Twirla. If it becomes necessary to engage an additional third-party manufacturer to produce Twirla, we may need to license certain manufacturing know-how from Corium, or our commercial supply will be limited while the new third-party manufacturer develops the necessary know-how to manufacture Twirla and while we obtain regulatory approval for the addition of a new manufacturer and processes.

        Reliance on a third-party manufacturer subjects us to risks that would not affect us if we manufactured Twirla and our potential product candidates ourselves, including:

        Twirla and our potential product candidates may compete with other products and product candidates for access to manufacturing resources and facilities. There are a limited number of manufacturers that operate in compliance with the FDA's manufacturing requirements and that are both capable of manufacturing for us and willing to do so. If our existing third-party manufacturer, or the third parties that we may engage in the future to manufacture a product for commercial sale or for our clinical trials, should cease to continue to manufacture our products or potential product candidates for any reason, we likely would experience delays in obtaining sufficient quantities of our products or potential product candidates for us to meet commercial demand or to advance our clinical trials while we identify and qualify alternative suppliers. If for any reason we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of our products or potential product candidates or the components used to manufacture them, it will be more difficult for us to develop our potential product candidates and compete effectively.

        Our third-party manufacturer is subject to regulatory requirements, covering manufacturing, testing, quality control and record keeping relating to Twirla and our potential product candidates, and subject to ongoing inspections by the regulatory agencies. In addition to the above-described regulatory actions, failures by our third-party manufacturer to comply with applicable regulations may result in long delays and interruptions to our manufacturing capacity while we seek to secure another third-party manufacturer that meets all regulatory requirements.

We are dependent on numerous third parties in Corium's supply chain for the supply of Twirla and our potential product candidates, and if Corium fails to maintain supply relationships with these third parties, develop new relationships with other third parties or suffers disruptions in supply, we may be unable to continue to commercialize Twirla or develop our potential product candidates.

        We, through our manufacturing partner Corium, rely on a number of third parties for the supply of active ingredients, other raw materials and laboratory services for the commercialization or Twirla and supply of our potential product candidates. Our ability to commercialize Twirla and to develop our potential product candidates depends, in part, on Corium's ability to successfully obtain the components used to manufacture Twirla and our potential product candidates, in accordance with regulatory

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requirements and in sufficient quantities for commercialization and clinical testing meeting the applicable quality standards. If Corium fails to develop and maintain supply relationships with these third parties, or if Corium is unable to develop new relationships to replace any existing relationships that are lost, we may be unable to commercialize Twirla or to continue to develop our potential product candidates. Moreover, these third parties will be subject to FDA inspection. If these third parties do not comply with the FDA's regulatory requirements, we may not be able to maintain approval for Twirla or receive or maintain approval for any of our potential product candidates, and we may be subject to other regulatory enforcement action such as adverse inspectional findings, Warning Letters, Untitled Letters, recall requests, withdrawal of investigational approvals, clinical holds, or termination of clinical trials, refusals to approve pending applications, disgorgement, restitution, exclusion from federal healthcare programs, product seizures and detention, consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, criminal and civil penalties, including imprisonment, refusal to permit import or export of the product and injunction against or restriction of manufacture or distribution.

        We, through Corium, also rely on certain third parties as the current sole source of the materials they supply. Although many of these materials are produced in more than one location or are available from another supplier, if any of these materials becomes unavailable to us for any reason, we likely would incur added costs and delays in identifying or qualifying replacement materials and there can be no assurance that replacements would be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. In certain cases, we may be required to get regulatory approval to use alternative suppliers, and this process of approval could delay the commercialization of Twirla or the development of our potential product candidates, indefinitely.

        If Corium's third-party suppliers fail to deliver the required quantities of sub-components and starting materials, in accordance with all regulatory requirements, and on a timely basis and at commercially reasonable prices, and we and Corium are unable to find one or more alternative suppliers capable of production at a substantially equivalent cost in substantially equivalent volumes and quality, and on a timely basis, the commercialization of Twirla and the continued development of our potential product candidates, would be impeded, delayed, limited or prevented, which could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. We could also face regulatory enforcement actions.

If the manufacturing facilities of Corium are not maintained in a manner that is compliant with FDA's manufacturing requirements, we may need to find alternative manufacturers and suppliers, which could result in supply interruptions of Twirla and our potential product candidates, additional costs and lost revenues.

        Corium's facilities used for the manufacture of Twirla and our potential product candidates must be maintained in a manner compliant with the FDA's manufacturing requirements, including obtaining favorable inspection reports. We do not control the manufacturing process and are dependent on Corium for compliance with the FDA's requirements for manufacture of Twirla and our potential product candidates. If Corium cannot successfully manufacture material components and finished products that conform to our specifications and the FDA's strict regulatory requirements, they and we may be subject to regulatory action, including adverse inspectional findings, Warning Letters, Untitled Letters, product recall requests, withdrawal of product or investigational approvals, non-approval of marketing applications, clinical holds or termination of clinical trials, disgorgement, restitution, exclusion from federal healthcare programs, detentions or seizures, refusal to allow the import or export of a product, injunction against or restriction of manufacture or distribution, consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, criminal and civil penalties, including imprisonment, and Corium may not be able to maintain FDA approval for its manufacturing facilities or acceptance of its manufacturing data in regulatory filings. If Corium's facilities cannot maintain compliance with FDA requirements, we may need to find and successfully qualify alternative manufacturing facilities, which could result in supply interruptions of Twirla and our potential product candidates and substantial

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additional costs as a result of such delays, including costs with respect to finding alternative manufacturing facilities, and lost revenues. There is further no guarantee that the FDA would approve these alternative facilities.

We rely on third parties to conduct aspects of our clinical trials and post marketing studies. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or comply with applicable regulatory requirements, we may not be able to maintain regulatory approval for Twirla or be delayed in obtaining or ultimately not be able to obtain marketing approval for our potential product candidates.

        We currently rely and plan to continue to rely on CROs and clinical trial sites for most aspects of our post-marketing study and any other clinical trials of our potential product candidates, such as trial conduct, data management, statistical analysis and electronic compilation of our FDA submission. We may enter into agreements with additional CROs and clinical trial sites to obtain additional resources and expertise in an attempt to accelerate our progress with regard to new or ongoing clinical and preclinical programs. Entering into relationships with CROs and clinical trial sites involves substantial cost and requires extensive management time and focus. In addition, typically there is a transition period between engagement of a CRO and clinical trial sites and the time the CRO and sites commences work. As a result, delays may occur, which may materially impact our ability to meet our desired post-marketing and clinical development timelines and ultimately have a material adverse impact on the commercialization of Twirla, our ability to maintain our marketing authorization for Twirla, our operating results, financial condition or future prospects. For example, as part of Twirla's approval, the FDA is requiring that we conduct a post-marketing study comparing the risks for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE) in new users of Twirla to new users of oral combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) and new users of Xulane in U.S. women of reproductive age. The FDA has also required a second small post-marketing study to assess Twirla's residual drug content, strength, and adhesion. We plan to engage the services of a CRO to design, enroll, and complete this study, which will likely involve thousands of subjects and hundreds of clinical trial sites and will require substantial time and resources. If the CRO cannot enroll subjects and complete the trial in a timely manner, we may be unable to complete the study required by the FDA and subsequently may lose our marketing authorization for Twirla or be subject to other enforcement actions, and be forced to suspend commercial activities regarding the product.

        As CROs and clinical investigators are not our employees, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our clinical trials for which they are engaged to perform, and whether they comply with the applicable regulatory requirements, known as Current Good Clinical Practices, or cGCPs, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA, the Competent Authorities of the Member States of the European Economic Area, or EEA, and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for all of our products and potential product candidates in clinical trials, which include requirements related to the conduct of the study, subject informed consent, and IRB approval. Regulatory authorities enforce these cGCPs through routine inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. Although we may rely on third parties for the execution of our trials, we are nevertheless responsible for ensuring that each of our studies is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards and our reliance on CROs and clinical trial sites does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. If we, any of our CROs, or clinical trial sites fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, European Medicines Agency or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications for potential product candidates in development, or to perform additional post marketing studies for approved products or determine that data from the post marketing study is not sufficient to support maintaining marketing authorization for the product at issue. We cannot assure you that, upon

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inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials or post marketing studies complies with cGCP regulations.

        In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product and potential product candidates' materials produced in compliance with the FDA's manufacturing regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to discontinue or repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process for our potential product candidates or impact our ability to meet our post-market study requirements. If the CROs or clinical trial sites we engage do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations, conduct the clinical trials in accordance with all regulatory requirements and the applicable protocols, or meet expected deadlines, or if they need to be replaced, or the quality or accuracy of the data they provide is compromised due to the failure to adhere to regulatory requirements or for other reasons, then our development programs may be extended, delayed or terminated, we may not be able to obtain marketing approval for or successfully commercialize our potential product candidates, or we may not be able to meet our post-market study requirements. Failure to comply with clinical trial regulatory requirements may further subject us to regulatory action, including Warning Letters, Untitled Letters, adverse inspectional findings, clinical holds or termination of clinical trials, non-approval of marketing applications, criminal and civil penalties, including imprisonment, injunction against manufacture or distribution and debarment. As a result, our financial results and the commercial prospects for Twirla or our potential product candidates would be harmed and our costs would increase.

Any collaboration arrangements that we may enter into in the future may not be successful, which could adversely affect our ability commercialize Twirla and to develop and commercialize our potential product candidates.

        We may seek partnerships, collaborations and other strategic transactions to maximize the commercial potential of Twirla, our potential product candidates and our proprietary technologies in the United States and territories throughout the world. We may enter into such arrangements on a selective basis depending on the merits of retaining commercialization rights for ourselves as compared to entering into selective collaboration arrangements with leading pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies for Twirla and each of our potential product candidates and technologies, both in the United States and internationally. We face competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Moreover, collaboration arrangements are complex, and time consuming to negotiate, document and implement. We may not be successful in our efforts to establish and implement collaborations or other alternative arrangements should we choose to enter into such arrangements. The terms of any collaborations or other arrangements that we may establish may not be favorable to us.

        Any future collaborations that we enter into may not be successful. The success of our collaboration arrangements will depend heavily on the efforts and activities of our collaborators. Collaborators generally have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations. Collaborators, also, may not comply with the applicable regulatory requirements, which may subject them or us to enforcement actions.

        Disagreements between parties to a collaboration arrangement regarding clinical development and commercialization matters could lead to delays in the commercialization of Twirla or the development process or commercialization of our potential product candidates and, in some cases, termination of the collaboration arrangement. These disagreements can be difficult to resolve if neither of the parties has final decision-making authority.

        Collaborations with pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies and other third parties often are terminated or allowed to expire by the other party. Any such termination or expiration could adversely affect us financially and could harm our business reputation.

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If we fail to establish an effective distribution process our business may be adversely affected.

        We do not currently have the infrastructure necessary for distributing pharmaceutical products. We intend to contract with a third-party logistics wholesaler to warehouse these products and distribute them to pharmacies. This distribution network will require significant coordination with our sales and marketing and finance organizations. Failure to secure contracts with third party logistics providers s could negatively impact the distribution of Twirla and our potential product candidates, if and when approved, and failure to coordinate financial systems could negatively impact our ability to accurately report product revenue. If we are unable to effectively establish and manage the distribution process, the commercial launch and sales of Twirla and of our potential product candidates, if and when approved, will be delayed or severely compromised and our results of operations may be harmed. Distribution practices will also need to comply with the applicable regulatory requirements and we and our distributors will be required to hold state licenses in the States to which Twirla or any of our potential product candidates, if approved, are distributed. If we or our distributors do not comply with the applicable regulatory requirements, we could be exposed to potential enforcement actions and product distribution may be interrupted or discontinued.

We may rely on third parties to perform many essential services for any products that we commercialize, including services related to government price reporting, customer service, accounts receivable management, cash collection, and pharmacovigilance and adverse event reporting. If these third parties fail to perform as expected or to comply with legal and regulatory requirements, our ability to commercialize our potential product candidates will be significantly impacted and we may be subject to regulatory sanctions.

        We may retain third-party service providers to perform a variety of functions related to Twirla, key aspects of which will be out of our direct control. These service providers may provide key services related to customer service, accounts receivable management, and cash collection. If we retain a service provider, we would substantially rely on it as well as other third-party providers that perform services for us. If these third-party service providers fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, fail to meet expected deadlines, or otherwise do not carry out their contractual duties to us, or encounter physical or natural damage at their facilities, our ability to deliver product to meet commercial demand would be significantly impaired and we may be subject to regulatory enforcement action.

        In addition, we may engage third parties to perform various other services for us relating to pharmacovigilance and adverse event reporting, safety database management, fulfillment of requests for medical information regarding Twirla and related services. If the quality or accuracy of the data maintained by these service providers is insufficient, or these third parties otherwise fail to comply with regulatory requirements, we could be subject to regulatory sanctions.

        We may further contract with a third party to calculate and report pricing information mandated by various government programs. If a third party fails to timely report or adjust prices as required, or errors in calculating government pricing information from transactional data in our financial records, it could impact our discount and rebate liability, and potentially subject us to regulatory sanctions or False Claims Act lawsuits.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property Rights

We may not be able to protect our proprietary technology in the marketplace.

        We depend on our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws, and confidentiality, licensing and other agreements with employees and third parties, all of which offer only limited protection. Our success depends in large part on our ability and any future licensee's ability to maintain our patents and to obtain additional patent protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our proprietary technology and products. We believe we will be able to obtain, through prosecution of our pending patent applications, additional

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patent protection for our proprietary technology. If we are compelled to spend significant time and money protecting or enforcing our patents, designing around patents held by others or licensing or acquiring, potentially for large fees, patents or other proprietary rights held by others, our business and financial prospects may be harmed. If we are unable to effectively protect the intellectual property that we own, other companies may be able to offer for sale the same or similar products containing the generically available active pharmaceutical ingredients in Twirla and our potential product candidates, which could materially adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business prospects. Our patents may be challenged, narrowed, invalidated or circumvented, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing the same or similar products or limit the length of the term of patent protection that we may have for our potential product candidates. Even if our patents are unchallenged, they may not adequately protect our intellectual property, provide exclusivity for our potential product candidates or prevent others from designing around our claims. Any of these outcomes could impair our ability to prevent competition from third parties, which may have an adverse impact on our business.

        The patent positions of pharmaceutical products are often complex and uncertain. The breadth of claims allowed in pharmaceutical patents in the United States and many jurisdictions outside of the United States is not consistent. For example, in many jurisdictions the support standards for pharmaceutical patents are becoming increasingly strict. Some countries prohibit method of treatment claims in patents. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretations of patent laws in the United States and other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property or create uncertainty. In addition, publication of information related to our current product and potential product candidates and potential products may prevent us from obtaining or enforcing patents relating to this product and potential product candidates and potential products, including without limitation transdermal delivery systems and methods of using such transdermal delivery systems. Our product and potential product candidates contain generically available active pharmaceutical ingredients. As a result, new chemical entity patents directed to the active pharmaceutical ingredients in our product and potential product candidates, which are generally believed to offer the strongest form of patent protection, are not available for our potential product candidates.

        Patents that we own or may license in the future do not necessarily ensure the protection of our intellectual property for a number of reasons, including without limitation the following:

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        Our competitors may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner. Our competitors may seek to market generic, similar or strength modified versions of any approved products by submitting abbreviated new drug or 505(b)(2) NDA applications to the FDA in which our competitors claim that our patents are invalid, unenforceable or not infringed. Alternatively, our competitors may seek approval to market their own products that are the same as, similar to or otherwise competitive with Twirla or our potential product candidates. In these circumstances, we may need to defend or assert our patents, by means including filing lawsuits alleging patent infringement. In any of these types of proceedings, a court or government agency with jurisdiction may find our patents invalid, unenforceable or not infringed. We may also fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development before it is too late to obtain patent protection. Even if we have valid and enforceable patents, these patents still may not provide protection against competing products or processes sufficient to achieve our business objectives.

        The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, ownership, priority, validity or enforceability. In that regard, third parties may challenge our patents in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. Such challenges may result in loss of exclusivity or freedom to operate or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and potential products. In addition, given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review, and commercial launch of new products, patents protecting any approved product we may have might expire or be held invalid or unenforceable before our company can realize sufficient economic value following commercialization.

Our intellectual property portfolio is currently comprised of issued patents and pending patent applications. If our issued patents are found to be invalid, not enforceable or not infringed by competitor products, or pending patent applications fail to issue or fail to issue with a scope that is meaningful to Twirla or our potential product candidates, our business will be adversely affected.

        There can be no assurance that our pending patent applications will result in issued patents in the United States or foreign jurisdictions in which such applications are pending. Even if patents do issue on any of these applications, there can be no assurance that a third-party will not challenge their validity or enforceability, that we will obtain sufficient claim scope or term in those patents to prevent a

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third party from competing successfully with Twirla or our potential product candidates, or that, even if our patents are found to be valid, enforceable, and infringed, a legal tribunal would enjoin infringing activity.

We may not be able to enforce our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

        The laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of some countries, particularly developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, especially those relating to life sciences. To the extent that we have obtained or are able to obtain patents or other intellectual property rights in any foreign jurisdictions, it may be difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or the misappropriation of other intellectual property rights. For example, some foreign countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner must grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the availability of certain types of patent rights and enforceability of patents against third parties, including government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, patents may provide limited or no benefit.

        Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business. Accordingly, our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights in such countries may be inadequate. In addition, changes in the law and legal decisions by courts in the United States and foreign countries may affect our ability to obtain adequate protection for our technology, Twirla and potential product candidates, and the enforcement of intellectual property.

Recent patent reform legislation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents.

        On September 16, 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the Leahy-Smith Act, was signed into law. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted and may also affect patent litigation. In particular, under the Leahy-Smith Act, the United States transitioned in March 2013 to a "first to file" system in which the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent. Third parties are allowed to submit prior art before the issuance of a patent by the USPTO and may become involved in post-grant proceedings including reexamination, post-grant review, inter partes review, or derivation or interference proceedings challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope or enforceability of, or invalidate, our patent rights, which could adversely affect our competitive position.

        The USPTO has developed regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act, and in particular, the first to file provisions, did not become effective until March 16, 2013. However, the full impact of the Leahy-Smith Act, as well as the courts' treatment of any appeals to related proceedings, remain unclear. Accordingly, the full impact that the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business is not clear. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, as well as our ability to bring about timely favorable resolution of any disputes involving our patents and the patents of others.

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Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, documentary, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for noncompliance with these requirements.

        Periodic maintenance fees on any issued patent are due to be paid to the USPTO and foreign patent agencies in several stages over the lifetime of the patent. The USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in unenforceability, invalidity, abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Noncompliance events that could result in unenforceability, invalidity, abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include, but are not limited to, failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. If we or any future licensors fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering Twirla or our potential product candidates, our competitive position would be adversely affected.

We may infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may prevent or delay our commercialization and product development efforts or increase the costs of commercializing Twirla or our potential product candidates, when and if approved.

        Our commercial success depends significantly on our ability to operate without infringing the patents and other intellectual property rights of third parties. For example, there could be issued patents of which we are not aware that Twirla or our current or future potential product candidates infringe. There also could be patents that we believe we do not infringe, but that we may ultimately be found to infringe.

        Moreover, patent applications are in some cases maintained in secrecy until patents are issued. The publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature frequently occurs substantially later than the date on which the underlying discoveries were made and patent applications were filed. There may be currently pending applications of which we are unaware that may later result in issued patents that Twirla or our current or future potential product candidates infringe. For example, pending applications may exist that claim or can be amended to claim subject matter that Twirla or our current or future potential product candidates infringe. Competitors may file continuing patent applications claiming priority to already issued patents in the form of continuation, divisional or continuation-in-part applications, in order to maintain the pendency of a patent family and attempt to cover Twirla or our potential product candidates.

        Third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization and may sue us for patent or other intellectual property infringement or misappropriation. These lawsuits are costly and could adversely affect our results of operations and divert the attention of managerial and scientific personnel. If we are sued for patent infringement, we would need to demonstrate that our product, potential product candidates or methods either do not infringe the claims of the relevant patent or that the patent claims are invalid or unenforceable, and we may not be able to do this. Proving invalidity or unenforceability is difficult. For example, in the United States, proving invalidity requires a showing of clear and convincing evidence to overcome the presumption of validity enjoyed by issued patents. Even if we are successful in these proceedings, we may incur substantial costs and the time and attention of our management and scientific personnel could be diverted in pursuing these proceedings, which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, we may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion. If a court holds that any third-party patents are valid, enforceable and cover our product, potential product candidates, or their use, the holders of any of these patents may be able to block our ability to commercialize

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Twirla or our potential product candidates unless we acquire or obtain a license under the applicable patents or until the patents expire. We may not be able to enter into licensing arrangements or make other arrangements at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms. Any inability to secure licenses or alternative technology could result in delays in the introduction of our product or potential product candidates or lead to prohibition of the manufacture or sale of our product or potential product candidates by us. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. We could be forced, including by court order, to cease commercializing the infringing technology or product. In addition, in any such proceeding or litigation, we could be found liable for monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys' fees if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our product or potential product candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. Any claims by third parties that we have misappropriated their confidential information, know-how or trade secrets could have a similar negative impact on our business. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our operations.

We may be subject to claims that we or our employees have misappropriated the intellectual property, including know-how or trade secrets, of a third party, or that claim ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

        Many of our employees, consultants and contractors were previously employed at or engaged by biotechnology companies or other pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Some of these employees, consultants and contractors, including each member of our senior management, executed proprietary rights, non-disclosure and non-competition agreements in connection with such previous employment. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and contractors do not use the intellectual property and other proprietary information or know-how or trade secrets of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these employees, consultants and contractors have used or disclosed such intellectual property, including know-how, trade secrets or other proprietary information. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. We are not aware of any threatened or pending claims related to these matters or concerning agreements with our senior management, or other of our employees, consultants and contractors, but litigation may be necessary in the future to defend against such claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, or personnel or access to consultants and contractors. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

        In addition, while we typically require our employees, consultants and contractors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact develops intellectual property that we regard as our own, which may result in claims by or against us related to the ownership of such intellectual property. If we fail in prosecuting or defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights. Even if we are successful in prosecuting or defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our management and scientific personnel.

We may be unable to adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information.

        We rely on trade secrets to protect our proprietary technological advances and know-how, especially where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. We rely in part on confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, contractors, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers and other advisors,

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including the third parties we rely on to manufacture Twirla and our potential product candidates, to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information. However, any party with whom we have executed such an agreement may breach that agreement and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets. Accordingly, these agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets and proprietary information. Further, the FDA, as part of its Transparency Initiative, previously took steps to increase the public disclosure of information regarding FDA-regulated products, including information that we may consider to be trade secrets or other proprietary information. It is not clear at the present time how the FDA's disclosure policies may change in the future, if at all. Failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could enable competitors to use our proprietary information to develop products that compete with our products or cause additional, material adverse effects upon our competitive business position and financial results.

Any lawsuits relating to infringement of intellectual property rights brought by or against us will be costly and time consuming and may adversely impact the price of our common stock.

        We may be required to initiate litigation to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights. These lawsuits can be very time consuming and costly. There is a substantial amount of litigation involving patent and other intellectual property rights in the pharmaceutical industry generally. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating expenses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities.

        In infringement litigation, any award of monetary damages we receive may not be commercially valuable. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information and trade secrets could be compromised by disclosure during litigation. Moreover, there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient financial or other resources to file and pursue such infringement claims, which typically last for years before they are resolved. Further, any claims we assert against a perceived infringer could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we have infringed their patents. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.

        In addition, our patents and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions could face other challenges, such as derivation or interference proceedings, opposition proceedings, inter partes review, reexamination proceedings, third party submissions of prior art, and other forms of post-grant challenges. In the United States, for example, post-grant review, which is similar to opposition proceedings available in many countries other than the U.S., was newly established by the Leahy-Smith Act. Any of these challenges, if successful, could result in the invalidation of, or in a narrowing of the scope or preventing the issuance of, any of our patents and patent applications subject to challenge. Any of these challenges, regardless of their success, would likely be time consuming and expensive to defend and resolve and would divert our management and scientific personnel's time and attention.

        In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

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Intellectual property disputes could cause us to spend substantial resources and distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.

        Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the market price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct such litigation or proceedings.

Risks Related to the Development of Our Additional Potential Product Candidates

If we fail to develop and commercialize our current pipeline of additional potential product candidates, our prospects for future growth and our ability to reach or sustain profitability may be limited or never achieved.

        A key element of our long-term strategy is to develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize our portfolio of potential product candidates in addition to Twirla. To do so, we plan to utilize our proprietary transdermal delivery technology, Skinfusion®, to develop additional potential product candidates. We may not be successful in our efforts to develop our portfolio of additional potential product candidates, and any potential product candidates we do develop may not produce commercially viable products that safely and effectively treat their indicated conditions. To date, our efforts have identified three additional potential product candidates, including AG200-ER, which is a regimen designed to allow a woman to extend the length of her cycle, AG200-SP, which is a regimen designed to provide shorter, lighter periods, and AG890, which is a progestin-only contraceptive patch intended for use by women who are unable or unwilling to take estrogen. AG200-SP and AG200-ER are intended to be Twirla line extensions that would expand the use of Twirla beyond its initial approved use. In July 2016, we began preparations for an initial Phase 2 clinical trial examining the use of AG200-SP along with a smaller lower dose combination EE/LNG patch (SmP) in the fourth week of the woman's cycle. We have decided to postpone the trial and will continue to evaluate the timing for initiating dosing of subjects for this Phase 2 clinical trial, which is dependent on financial and other capital resources. Our planned Phase 2 clinical trial of AG200-SP (SmP) is only the initial clinical trial in this program and AG200-SP (SmP) will require additional clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of this potential product candidate. The other potential product candidates in our pipeline will require additional product development efforts to optimize patch formulations and dosing. In addition, we will need to conduct additional clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of these potential product candidates, which will require additional capital. Substantially all of our resources are currently dedicated to the manufacturing, validation and commercialization of Twirla. We will require additional capital to complete the commercialization plan for Twirla and to advance the development of our other potential product candidates.

        Our development programs may initially show promise in identifying potential product leads yet fail to produce potential product candidates for clinical development. In addition, identifying new treatment needs and potential product candidates requires substantial technical, financial and human resources on our part. If we are unable to obtain development partners or additional development program funding, or to continue to devote substantial technical and human resources to such programs, we may have to delay or abandon these programs. Any potential product candidate that we successfully identify may require substantial additional development efforts prior to commercial sale, including preclinical studies, extensive clinical testing and approval by the FDA and applicable foreign regulatory authorities. All potential product candidates are susceptible to the risks of failure that are inherent in pharmaceutical product development.

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Any clinical development activities, including clinical trials, necessary to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals may not be successfully completed.

        Twirla is our first approved product. While we have one approved product, we may not be successful in conducting and managing the clinical activities, including clinical trials, necessary to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals, which might prevent us from successfully designing, implementing, or completing the clinical trials required to support regulatory approval of our potential product candidates and meet our post-marketing study requirements. The application, approval and maintenance process for the FDA and other regulatory agencies are complex and difficult and vary by regulatory agency, and we might not be able to demonstrate that our potential product candidates or Twirla meet the appropriate standards for initial and continued regulatory approval or initiate and continue to commercialize Twirla or our potential product candidates, if approved, in the U.S. or elsewhere, or we might be significantly delayed in doing so. In such circumstances, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and the value of our common stock may be materially adversely affected.

If we experience any of a number of possible unforeseen events in connection with clinical trials related to our potential product candidates, or Twirla, any potential marketing authorization or commercialization of our potential product candidates could be delayed or prevented or we may not be able to meet our post-marketing study requirements for Twirla.

        We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing authorization or commercialize our potential product candidates, may prevent us from meeting our Twirla post-marketing study requirements, or which may adversely impact our commercialization of Twirla including:

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        Our costs will increase if we experience delays in testing, completion of post-marketing studies, or, for our potential product candidate marketing authorizations. We do not know whether any clinical trials will begin as planned, will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all.

        For Twirla, failure to complete post-marketing studies may also result in enforcement actions or removal of the product from the market. Adverse post-marketing study results may also result in withdrawal or limitations on marketing applications, label changes, or other restrictions or requirements, such as REMS or additional study requirements.

        For our potential product candidates, we cannot commercialize any potential product candidates in the U.S. without first obtaining FDA approval. Before obtaining regulatory approvals for commercial sale, however, we must demonstrate in, or rely on data from preclinical studies and well controlled clinical trials that the potential product candidate is safe and effective for use in the target indication and that the manufacturing processes, facilities, and controls are adequate. Obtaining marketing approval in the U.S. is a lengthy, expensive and uncertain process, and approval may not be obtained or may be subject to significant restrictions. Significant clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our potential product candidates, allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do, or impair our ability to successfully commercialize our potential product candidates, and so may harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Delays in regulatory approvals or failure to obtain regulatory approval for a potential product candidate may result from many factors, including:

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        Delays or failure to receive regulatory approval for any additional potential product candidates may materially impact our business.

We may be unable to license or acquire suitable additional potential product candidates or technologies from third parties for a number of reasons.

        The licensing and acquisition of pharmaceutical products is competitive. A number of more established companies are also pursuing strategies to license or acquire products. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, cash resources or greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, we expect competition in acquiring potential product candidates to increase, which may lead to fewer suitable acquisition opportunities for us as well as higher acquisition prices.

        Other factors that may prevent us from licensing or otherwise acquiring suitable potential product candidates include the following:

Risks Related to Our Business Operations and Industry

In order to establish our sales and marketing infrastructure, we will need to grow the size of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.

        As of December 31, 2019, we had a total of 15 full-time employees reflecting a resumption of hiring to advance the commercialization of Twirla. We use third-party consultants to assist with our sales and marketing functions. As our commercialization of Twirla advances, we expect to need to expand the size of our employee base for managerial, operational, commercial, sales, marketing, compliance, regulatory, finance and other resources. Future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including the need to identify, recruit, maintain, motivate and integrate additional employees. In addition, our management may have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from our day-to-day activities and devote a substantial amount of time to managing these growth activities. Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize Twirla and any other future potential product candidates and our ability to compete effectively will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth.

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If we are not successful in attracting and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.

        Our ability to compete in the highly competitive pharmaceuticals industry depends in large part upon our ability to attract and retain highly qualified managerial, scientific and medical personnel. We are highly dependent on our management, scientific and medical personnel. In order to induce valuable employees to remain with us, we have provided these employees with stock options that vest over time. The value to employees of stock options that vest over time is significantly affected by movements in our stock price that we cannot control and may at any time be insufficient to counteract more lucrative offers from other companies. Additionally, at times, we have also implemented programs that included cash retention bonuses and/or restricted stock units as incentives to retain employees.

        Our management team has expertise in many different aspects of drug development and commercialization. Competition for skilled personnel in our market is intense and competition for experienced personnel may limit our ability to hire and retain highly qualified personnel on acceptable terms. Despite our efforts to retain valuable employees, members of our management, scientific and medical teams may terminate their employment with us on short notice. We have employment agreements with our named executive officers which includes Alfred Altomari, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. The employment agreements provide for at-will employment, which means that Mr. Altomari or any of our other employees could leave our employment at any time, with or without notice. The loss of the services of any of our executive officers or other key employees could potentially harm our business, operating results or financial condition. In particular, we believe that the loss of the services of Mr. Altomari may have a material adverse effect on our business. We do not currently carry "key person" insurance on the lives of members of executive management. Our success also depends on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled junior, mid-level and senior managers as well as junior, mid-level and senior scientific and medical personnel.

        Other pharmaceutical companies with which we compete for qualified personnel have greater financial and other resources, different risk profiles and a longer history in the industry than we do. They also may provide more diverse opportunities and better chances for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high-quality candidates than those that we have to offer. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high-quality personnel, the rate of and success with which we can commercialize Twirla, as well as our potential product candidates, would be limited.

If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of Twirla or our potential product candidates, if approved.

        We face potential risks of product liability as a result of the clinical testing and commercial availability of Twirla and the clinical testing of our other potential product candidates. For example, we may be sued if Twirla or any potential product candidate we develop allegedly causes injury or is found to be otherwise unsuitable during product testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability and a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization or development of the product or potential product candidate subject to such claims. Even successful defense would require significant financial and management resources. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

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        We have obtained limited product liability insurance coverage for Twirla and our clinical trials with a $10.0 million annual aggregate coverage limit. Our inability to obtain and retain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization Twirla or of potential product candidates we develop. Although we maintain such insurance, any claim that may be brought against us could result in a court judgment or settlement in an amount that is not covered, in whole or in part, by our insurance or that is in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. Our insurance policies also have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We may have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts.

We may acquire businesses or products, or form strategic alliances in the future, and we may not realize the benefits of such acquisitions or alliances.

        We may acquire additional businesses or products, form strategic alliances or create joint ventures with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our existing business. If we acquire businesses with promising markets or technologies, we may not be able to realize the benefit of acquiring such businesses if we are unable to successfully integrate them with our existing operations and company culture. We may encounter numerous difficulties in developing, manufacturing and marketing any new products resulting from a strategic alliance or acquisition that delay or prevent us from realizing their expected benefits or enhancing our business. We cannot assure you that, following any such acquisition, we will achieve the expected synergies to justify the transaction.

We continue to incur significant increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to compliance initiatives.

        As a public company, we continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq Capital Market, impose various requirements on public companies, including requiring the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting and changes in corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs and have made some activities more time-consuming and costly. We estimate that we will annually incur approximately $2.0 million in expenses in response to these requirements.

        Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our testing, and the subsequent testing by

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our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses. We will incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts to comply with internal control over financial reporting requirements. We currently do not have an internal audit group, and we may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with these requirements in a timely manner or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the Nasdaq Capital Market, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.

Business interruptions could delay us in the process of developing our potential product candidates and could disrupt our sales.

        Our headquarters are located in Princeton, New Jersey, and Corium, our contract manufacturer, is located in Grand Rapids, Michigan. We are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as severe storms and other events that could disrupt our or Corium's operations. We do not carry insurance for natural disasters, and we may not carry sufficient business interruption insurance to compensate us for losses that may occur. Any losses or damages we incur could have a material adverse effect on our business operations.

Our business and operations would suffer in the event of system failures.

        Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems, and those of other third parties on which we rely, are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures, cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the internet, attachments to emails, persons inside our organization, or persons with access to systems inside our organization. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our drug development programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing or planned clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further commercialization of Twirla and/or development of our potential product candidates could be delayed.

Our employees, independent contractors, principal investigators, CROs, manufacturers, consultants, commercial partners and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading, which could significantly harm our business.

        We are exposed to the risk that employees, independent contractors, principal investigators, CROs, manufacturers, consultants, commercial partners and vendors may engage in fraudulent or other illegal activity, fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless or negligent conduct or disclosure of unauthorized activities to us that violates: (i) the law and regulations of the FDA and non-U.S. regulators, including those laws that require the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to the FDA and non-U.S. regulators, (ii) healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in the United States and abroad and (iii) laws that require the true, complete and accurate

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reporting of financial information or data. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Misconduct in violation of these laws may also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a code of conduct, but it is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by our employees and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including regulatory enforcement actions, the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, corporate integrity agreements, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and curtailment of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

Our ability to use net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and certain built-in losses to reduce future tax payments may be limited by provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and may be subject to further limitation as a result of our initial public offering.

        Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, contain rules that limit the ability of a company that undergoes an ownership change, which is generally any change in ownership of more than 50% of its stock over a three-year period, to utilize its net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and certain built-in losses recognized in years after the ownership change. These rules generally operate by focusing on ownership changes involving stockholders owning, directly or indirectly, 5% or more of the stock of a company and any change in ownership arising from a new issuance of stock by the company. Generally, if an ownership change occurs, the yearly taxable income limitation on the use of net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and certain built-in losses is equal to the product of the applicable long-term tax-exempt rate and the value of the company's stock immediately before the ownership change. We may be unable to offset future taxable income, if any, with losses, or our tax liability with credits, before such losses and credits expire and therefore would incur larger federal income tax liability. Our net operating loss carryforwards arising in taxable years ending on or prior to December 31, 2017 will expire between 2019 and 2037 if we have not used them. Net operating loss carryforwards arising in taxable years ending after December 31, 2017 are no longer subject to expiration under the Code.

        In addition, it is possible that the transactions relating to our initial public offering or subsequent public offerings, either on a standalone basis or when combined with future transactions, have caused us to undergo one or more additional ownership changes. In that event, we generally would not be able to use our pre-change loss or credit carryovers or certain built-in losses prior to such ownership change to offset future taxable income in excess of the annual limitations imposed by Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. We have not completed a study to assess whether an ownership change has occurred, or whether there have been multiple ownership changes since our inception.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

We expect that our stock price may fluctuate significantly.

        The trading price of our common stock is highly volatile and is subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control, including limited trading volume. In

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addition to the factors discussed in this "Risk Factors" section and elsewhere in this annual report, these factors include:

        These and other market and industry factors may cause the market price and demand for our common stock to fluctuate substantially, regardless of our actual operating performance, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their shares of common stock and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our common stock. In addition, the stock market in general, and the Nasdaq Capital Market and the stock prices of pharmaceutical companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies.

We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.

        The market price of our common stock may be volatile, and in the past companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation. Litigation of this type could result in

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substantial costs and diversion of management's attention and resources, which could adversely impact our business. Any adverse determination in litigation could also subject us to significant liabilities.

Our existing principal stockholders, executive officers and directors own a significant percentage of our common stock and will be able to exert a significant control over matters submitted to our stockholders for approval.

        As of December 31, 2019, our executive officers, directors, director nominees, holders of 5% or more of our capital stock and their respective affiliates together beneficially owned approximately 17.7% of our outstanding voting stock.

        As a result, these stockholders, if they acted together, could significantly influence all matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers or other business combination transactions. These stockholders may be able to determine all matters requiring stockholder approval. The interests of these stockholders may not always coincide with our interests or the interests of other stockholders. This may also prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our common stock that other stockholders may feel are in their best interest and our large stockholders may act in a manner that advances their best interests and not necessarily those of other stockholders, including seeking a premium value for their common stock, and might affect the prevailing market price for our common stock.

We will have broad discretion in how we use the net proceeds from our public and private offerings. We may not use these proceeds effectively, which could affect our results of operations and cause our stock price to decline.

        We will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds from our completed public and private offerings. As a result, investors will be relying upon management's judgment with only limited information about our specific intentions for the use of the balance of the net proceeds from our completed public and private offerings. We may use the net proceeds for purposes that do not yield a significant return or any return at all for our stockholders. In addition, pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from our completed public and private offerings in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting in the future, we may not be able to accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

        Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing by us conducted in connection with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or the subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our financial statements or require us to identify other areas for further attention or improvement. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting once that firm conducts its Section 404 reviews, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the Nasdaq Capital Market, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial

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reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.

Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.

        We are subject to the periodic reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to reasonably assure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. We believe that any disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls and procedures, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met.

        These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by an unauthorized override of the controls. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements or insufficient disclosures due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.

We have never paid dividends on our common stock and we do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, any gains from an investment in our common stock will likely depend on whether the price of our common stock increases.

        We have not paid dividends on our common stock to date and we currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future. Consequently, in the foreseeable future, you will likely only experience a gain from your investment in our common stock if the price of our common stock increases.

If equity research analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue unfavorable commentary or downgrade our common stock, the price of our common stock could decline.

        The trading market for our common stock relies in part on the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. We do not control these analysts. The price of our common stock could decline if one or more equity analysts downgrade our common stock or if analysts issue other unfavorable commentary or cease publishing reports about us or our business.

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law may discourage or prevent a change of control, even if an acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, which could affect our stock price adversely and prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

        Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our board of directors that our stockholders might consider favorable. Some of these provisions:

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In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which may prohibit certain business combinations with stockholders owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. These and other provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirers to obtain control of our board of directors or initiate actions that are opposed by our then-current board of directors, including a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving our company. This provision could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control, whether or not it is desired by or beneficial to our stockholders. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our board of directors could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

        None.

Item 2.    Properties

        Our principal offices occupy approximately 8,200 square feet of leased office space in Princeton, New Jersey pursuant to a lease agreement that expires in November 2020. We believe that our current facilities are suitable and adequate to meet our current needs. We intend to add new facilities or expand existing facilities as we add employees, and we believe that suitable additional or substitute space will be available as needed to accommodate any such expansion of our operations.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

        None.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

        Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information and Holders of Record

        Our common stock was listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol "AGRX" from May 23, 2014 through January 2, 2019. Beginning on January 3, 2019, our common stock has been listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol "AGRX".

 
  High   Low  

Year Ended December 31, 2019

             

Fourth Quarter

  $ 2.97   $ 0.35  

Third Quarter

  $ 1.64   $ 0.95  

Second Quarter

  $ 1.56   $ 1.02  

First Quarter

  $ 1.70   $ 0.66  

Year Ended December 31, 2018

   
 
   
 
 

Fourth Quarter

  $ 1.30   $ 0.33  

Third Quarter

  $ 0.92   $ 0.23  

Second Quarter

  $ 3.00   $ 0.49  

First Quarter

  $ 3.92   $ 2.40  

        As of February 18, 2020, we had 34 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of shareholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes shareholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. The number of holders of record also does not include shareholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities. The closing price of our common stock on February 18, 2020 was $3.94.

Dividends

        We have never declared or paid a cash dividend on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, our Credit Agreement and Guaranty among us, the gurantors from time to time party thereto, the lenders from time to time party thereto and Perceptive Credit Holdings III, LP, as a lender and as Administrative Agent for the lenders, contains, and any other loan facilities that we may enter into may contain, restrictions on our ability to pay dividends. Subject to such restrictions, any future determinations to pay cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on a number of factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, general business conditions, and any other factors that our board may deem relevant.

Stock Performance Graph

        This performance graph shall not be deemed "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

        The following graph shows a comparison from December 31, 2014 through December 31, 2019 of the cumulative total return for our common stock, and the Nasdaq Composite Index and The Nasdaq Biotechnology Index. The graph assumes that $100 was invested at the market close on December 31, 2014 in the common stock of Agile Therapeutics, Inc., the Nasdaq Composite Index and The Nasdaq

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Biotechnology Index and assumes reinvestments of dividends. The stock price performance of the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.


Comparison of Cumulative Total Return
December 31, 2019

GRAPHIC

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities and Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities

        None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

        None.

Item 6.    Selected Financial Data

        The following table sets forth our selected financial data for the periods indicated. You should read the following selected financial data in conjunction with our audited financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

        We have derived the statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 and the balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 and the balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 are derived from our audited financial statements that are not included in this Annual

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Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future.

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2019   2018   2017   2016   2015  
 
  (In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 

Statement of Operations Data:

                               

Operating expenses:

                               

Research and development

  $ 9,858   $ 9,777   $ 14,428   $ 20,929   $ 25,622  

General and administrative

    9,000     8,739     12,383     8,792     7,467  

Restructuring costs

        1,019              

Total operating expenses

    18,858     19,535     26,811     29,721     33,089  

Loss from operations

    (18,858 )   (19,535 )   (26,811 )   (29,721 )   (33,089 )

Other income (expense)

                               

Interest income

    252     366     282     117     5  

Interest expense

        (1,116 )   (1,918 )   (2,446 )   (2,077 )

Change in fair value of warrants

        29     143     234     (110 )

Loss on extinguishment of debt

                    (1,036 )

Total other income (expense), net

    252     (721 )   (1,493 )   (2,095 )   (3,218 )

Loss before benefit from income taxes

    (18,606 )   (20,256 )   (28,304 )   (31,816 )   (36,307 )

Benefit from income taxes

        477         3,075     5,972  

Net loss

  $ (18,606 ) $ (19,779 ) $ (28,304 ) $ (28,741 ) $ (30,335 )

Net loss per share (basic and diluted)

  $ (0.38 ) $ (0.58 ) $ (0.91 ) $ (1.02 ) $ (1.38 )

Weighted-average common shares (basic and diluted)

    49,432,487     34,315,931     30,940,831     28,273,331     22,017,229  

 

 
  As of December 31,  
 
  2019   2018   2017   2016   2015  
 
  (In thousands)
 

Balance Sheet Data:

                               

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 34,479   $ 7,851   $ 35,952   $ 48,750   $ 34,395  

Working Capital

    31,524     6,240     22,442     40,548     30,151  

Total Assets

    49,540     22,392     50,595     63,866     50,712  

Accounts Payable

    1,819     875     2,784     2,050     2,387  

Loan payable, current

            10,607     5,104      

Loan payable, long-term

                10,607     13,035  

Total stockholders' equity

    45,745     20,174     36,323     42,289     29,743  

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Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

        The following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is provided to enhance the understanding of, and should be read in conjunction with, Part I, Item 1, "Business" and Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." For information on risks and uncertainties related to our business that may make past performance not indicative of future results or cause actual results to differ materially from any forward-looking statements, see "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements," and Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors." Dollars in tabular format are presented in thousands, except per share data, or as otherwise indicated.

Overview

        We are a women's healthcare company dedicated to fulfilling the unmet health needs of today's women. Twirla® and our potential product candidates are designed to provide women with contraceptive options that offer greater convenience and facilitate compliance. Twirla, our first and only approved product, is a once-weekly prescription combination hormonal contraceptive patch. Twirla is designed using our proprietary transdermal patch technology, called Skinfusion®, designed with properties to optimize patch adhesion and patient wearability, which may help support compliance while, for the first time, delivering a dose of estrogen consistent with commonly prescribed combined hormonal contraceptives, or CHCs. We believe there is an unmet market need for a contraceptive patch that is designed to delivers approximately 30 mcg of estrogen and 120 mcg of progestin in a convenient dosage form that may support compliance in a non-invasive fashion.

        Twirla was approved for sale in the United States on February 14, 2020 as a method of contraception for use in women of reproductive potential with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 for whom a combined hormonal contraceptive is appropriate. Based on the observed relationship between efficacy and BMI in a Phase 3 clinical trial, Twirla's limitation of use instructs healthcare providers to consider Twirla's reduced effectiveness in women with a BMI ³ 25 to <30 kg/m2 before prescribing. Twirla is contraindicated in women with a BMI ³ 30 kg/m2 because compared to women with a lower BMI, women in this group had reduced effectiveness and may have a higher risk for VTEs.

        As part of Twirla's approval, the FDA is requiring us to conduct a long-term prospective, observational post-marketing study comparing the risks for VTE and ATE in new users of Twirla to new users of other CHCs. The FDA's requirement for Twirla is similar to another post-marketing study requirement for a recently approved CHC. The final study report for the Twirla post-marketing study is scheduled to be submitted to the FDA in November 2032, with interim safety data reporting to the FDA due in November 2026. We have also agreed to a small post-marketing commitment, or PMC, study to assess the residual drug content and strength of Twirla. The PMC study is similar to residual drug studies requested of patch developers in the FDA's November 2019 draft guidance entitled Transdermal and Topical Delivery Systems—Product Development and Quality Considerations. We are evaluating the design and cost of these post-marketing studies

        With the approval of Twirla we now plan to focus on our transition from a clinical development stage company to a commercial company. During 2020, we plan to begin the implementation of our

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commercialization plan for Twirla and to manage the growth of our company. Our near term plan for the commercialization of Twirla includes:

Activity   Expected Timing
Initiate coverage and reimbursement activities in the United States from third-party payors.   First Quarter 2020

Initiate hiring of contract sales force

 

Second Quarter 2020

Complete pre-validation and validation of the commercial manufacturing process consistent with our approved marketing application

 

Second Half 2020 with first shipment of product in the Fourth Quarter 2020.

        Our short-term goal is to establish an initial franchise in the multi-billion-dollar U.S. hormonal contraceptive market built on approval of Twirla in the U.S. Our resources are currently focused on the commercialization of Twirla. To that end, our goal is to begin the pre-validation and validation of the commercial manufacturing process in the first half of 2020, manufacture three validation batches of Twirla and complete the process in the second half of 2020. At the same time, we will prepare for the availability of commercial product supply. In the first quarter of 2020, we plan to initiate work with managed care and patient payors to gain market access for Twirla. In the second quarter of 2020, we plan to begin hiring and training an initial sales team, which we estimate to be in the range of 70 to 100 persons. We intend to ship product to wholesalers in fourth quarter of 2020. We also expect to explore the advancement of our existing pipeline and its possible expansion through business development activities.

        Our current priorities are as follows:

        For more information about the regulatory history of Twirla, please see Part 1, Item 1, "Business"

        Since our inception in 1997, we have devoted substantial resources to developing and seeking regulatory approval for Twirla, building our intellectual property portfolio, business planning, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these operations. We incurred research and development expenses of $9.9 million, $9.8 million and $14.4 million during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. While we anticipate that a portion of our operating expenses will continue to be related to research and development as we complete the pre-validation manufacturing activities related to Twirla, conduct our Phase 4 study, and plan the development of our pipeline, we expect our operating expenses to substantially shift towards commercialization. A

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substantial amount of our resources are currently dedicated to completing manufacturing validation and commercializing Twirla.

        We have funded our operations primarily through sales of common stock, convertible preferred stock, convertible promissory notes and term loans. As of December 31, 2019, and 2018, respectively, we had $34.5 million and $7.9 million in cash and cash equivalents.

        In January 2019, we entered into a common stock sales agreement or the "2019 ATM Agreement," under which we were authorized to sell up to an aggregate of $10.0 million in gross proceeds through the sale of shares of common stock from time to time in "at-the-market" equity offerings (as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended). We agreed to pay a commission of 3% of the gross proceeds of any common stock sold under this agreement. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we issued and sold a total of 1,801,528 shares of common stock under the 2019 ATM Agreement resulting in net proceeds of approximately $2.5 million. We terminated the 2019 ATM Agreement on July 31, 2019.

        In March 2019, we completed a private placement of 8,426,750 shares of common stock at $0.93 per share. Proceeds from the private placement, net of offering costs, were approximately $7.8 million.

        In August 2019, we completed a public offering of 14,526,315 shares of common stock at a price of $0.95 per share. Proceeds from the public offering, net of underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses were approximately $12.7 million.

        In November 2019, we entered into a second ATM Agreement, or the "Second 2019 ATM Agreement," under which we were authorized to issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $20.0 million from time to time. We paid a commission of 3% of the gross proceeds from the sales of our common stock under the Second 2019 ATM Agreement. In the year ended December 31, 2019, we issued and sold 10,440,908 shares of common stock under the second 2019 ATM Agreement, representing all the capacity of Second ATM Agreement, resulting in net proceeds of approximately $19.3 million.

        In February 2020, we entered into a Credit Agreement and Guaranty with Perceptive Credit Holdings III, LP, or Perceptive, for a senior secured term loan facility of up to $35 million, which we refer to as the Perceptive Credit Agreement. A first tranche of $5 million was funded on execution of the Perceptive Credit Agreement. A second tranche of $15 million was funded as a result of the approval of Twirla by the FDA. Another $15 million tranche will be available upon the achievement of certain revenue milestones. The facility will be interest only until the third anniversary of the closing date.

        We have not generated any revenue and have never been profitable for any year. Our net loss was $18.6 million, $19.8 million and $28.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. We expect to incur increased expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future as we commercialize Twirla. This includes completing the qualification and validation of our commercial manufacturing process, initiating pre-launch commercial activities, commercially launching Twirla, advancing our other potential product candidates and expanding our research and development programs. We will require additional capital to fund these activities and to advance the development of our other potential product candidates.

        As of December 31, 2019, we had cash and cash equivalents of $34.5 million. Additionally, in February 2020, we received $20.0 million in gross proceeds under the Perceptive Credit Agreement. We believe that our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019, along with the proceeds of the Perceptive Credit Agreement we have received to date, will be sufficient to meet our projected operating requirements through the end of 2020. We will require additional capital to fund our

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operating needs beyond 2020, which we expect primarily will consist of commercializing Twirla, and exploring the advancement of our existing pipeline and its possible expansion through business development activities.

        Our future success depends on our ability to raise additional capital and/or implement various strategic alternatives. Our ability to continue operations beyond 2020 will depend on our ability to obtain additional funding, as to which no assurances can be given. Based upon the foregoing, management has concluded that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern for twelve months from the date of filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. There can be no assurance that any financing by us can be realized, or if realized, what the terms of any such financing may be, or that any amount that we are able to raise will be adequate.

        We continue to analyze strategic and financing alternatives, potential asset sales as well as mergers and acquisitions. We cannot be certain that these initiatives or raising additional capital, whether through selling additional debt or equity securities or obtaining a line of credit or other loan, will be available to us or, if available, will be on terms acceptable to us. If we issue additional securities to raise funds, whether through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, or any combination thereof, these securities may have rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those of our common stock, and our current stockholders will experience dilution. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with pharmaceutical partners, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates, including Twirla, or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to obtain funds when needed or on acceptable terms, we then may be unable to complete the commercialization of Twirla and may also be required to further cut operating costs, forego future development and other opportunities and may need to seek bankruptcy protection.

        The financial statements as of December 31, 2019 have been prepared under the assumption that we will continue as a going concern for the next 12 months. Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon our uncertain ability to obtain additional capital, reduce expenditures and/or execute on our business plan and successfully launch Twirla. These financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

        We do not own any manufacturing facilities and rely on our contract manufacturer, Corium, for all aspects of the manufacturing of Twirla. We will need to continue to invest in the manufacturing process for Twirla, and incur significant expenses, in order to complete the validation of Corium's commercial manufacturing line for Twirla and be capable of supplying projected commercial quantities of Twirla. In September 2019, we re-started manufacturing development at Corium. We are currently working with Corium to complete manufacturing development, process improvements, and pre-validation work. Our goal is to manufacture three validation batches of Twirla and complete the validation of the commercial manufacturing process in the second half of 2020. We expect to incur significant expenses in order to create an infrastructure to support the commercialization of Twirla, including sales, marketing, distribution, medical affairs and compliance functions.

        We have incurred and will continue to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. Accordingly, we will need additional capital to support our continuing operations and other potential product candidates in our pipeline in addition to the commercial activities required for the pre-launch and launch of Twirla. We will seek to fund our operations through public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, which may include collaborations with third parties. Adequate additional capital may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Our failure to raise additional capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our

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ability to pursue our business strategy. We will need to generate significant revenue to achieve profitability, and we may never do so.

Financial Operations Overview

Revenue

        To date, we have not generated any revenue. In the future, we may generate revenue from product sales, license fees, milestone payments and royalties from the sale of products developed using our intellectual property. Our ability to generate revenue and become profitable depends on our ability to successfully commercialize Twirla and any product candidates that we may advance in the future. If we fail to successfully commercialize Twirla, or any other product candidates we advance in a timely manner or obtain regulatory approval for them, our ability to generate future revenue, and our results of operations and financial position, will be adversely affected.

Research and Development Expenses

        Since our inception, we have focused our resources on our research and development activities. Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the development of Twirla and other current and future potential product candidates, and include:

        Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Costs for certain development activities, such as clinical trials, are recognized based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using data such as subject enrollment, clinical site activations or information provided to us by our third-party vendors.

        Research and development activities are central to our business model and to date, our research and development expenses have been related primarily to the development of Twirla. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We do not currently utilize a formal time allocation system to capture expenses on a project-by-project basis, as the majority of our past and planned expenses have been and will be in support of Twirla.

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        For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, our research and development expenses were approximately $9.9 million, $9.8 million and $14.4 million, respectively. The following table summarizes our research and development expenses by functional area.

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2019   2018   2017  
 
  (In thousands)
 

Clinical development

  $ 1,781   $ 1,318   $ 2,386  

Regulatory

    2,990     562     1,348  

Personnel related

    1,669     2,162     2,440  

Manufacturing—commercialization

    2,876     4,306     5,917  

Manufacturing

    20     155     1,153  

Stock-based compensation

    522     1,274     1,184  

Total research and development expenses

  $ 9,858   $ 9,777   $ 14,428  

        It is difficult to determine with any certainty the exact duration and completion costs of any of our future clinical trials of Twirla or our current and future potential product candidates we may advance. It is also difficult to determine if, when or to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of Twirla our potential product candidates that obtain regulatory approval.

        The duration, costs and timing of clinical trials and development of our other potential product candidates in addition to conducting required post-marketing studies for Twirla will depend on a variety of factors, including the uncertainties of future clinical trials and preclinical studies, the rate of subject enrollment, obtaining additional capital, and significant and changing government regulation. In addition, the probability of success for each product candidate will depend on numerous factors, including competition, manufacturing capability and commercial viability. A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of a product candidate could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. For example, if the FDA, or another regulatory authority were to require us to conduct clinical trials beyond those that we currently anticipate will be required for the completion of clinical development of a product candidate, or if we experience significant delays in enrollment in any of our clinical trials, or experience issues with our manufacturing capabilities we could be required to expend significant additional financial resources and time with respect to the development of that product candidate. We will determine which programs to pursue and how much to fund each program in response to the scientific and clinical success of each product candidate, as well as an assessment of each product candidate's commercial potential. Substantially all of our resources are currently dedicated to commercializing Twirla. We will require additional capital to fund our operating needs beyond 2020, which we expect primarily will consist of commercializing Twirla, and exploring the advancement of our existing pipeline and its possible expansion through business development activities.

General and Administrative Expenses

        General and administrative expenses consist principally of salaries and related costs for personnel in executive, finance and administrative functions including payroll taxes and health insurance, stock-based compensation and travel expenses. Other general and administrative expenses include facility-related costs, insurance and professional fees for legal, patent review, consulting and accounting services. General and administrative expenses are expensed as incurred.

        For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, our general and administrative expenses totaled approximately $9.0 million, $8.7 million and $12.4 million, respectively. In January 2018, following our receipt of the 2017 CRL, we significantly scaled back our preparations for the commercialization of Twirla, including commercial pre-launch activities, pending our ability to address

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the 2017 CRL and receive approval of Twirla. With the recent approval of Twirla, we intend to commercialize Twirla in the United States through a contract sales force. We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future with the commercialization of Twirla. These increases will likely include increased selling and marketing costs, including payroll and operating costs, related to the commercial launch of Twirla, legal and accounting services, stock registration and printing fees, addition of new personnel to support compliance and communication needs, increased insurance premiums, outside consultants and investor relations.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

        Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make significant estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, our actual results may differ significantly from our estimates.

        Our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in the notes to our financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We believe the following accounting policies to be most critical to the judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our financial statements.

Accrued Research and Development Expenses

        As part of the process of preparing our financial statements, we are required to estimate our accrued expenses, particularly for product development costs. This process involves reviewing open contracts and purchase orders, communicating with our personnel to identify services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of services performed and the associated costs incurred for the services when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of the actual costs. The majority of our service providers invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed or when contractual milestones are met. We make estimates of our accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date in our financial statements based on facts and circumstances known to us at that time. We periodically confirm the accuracy of our estimates with service providers and make adjustments as necessary. Examples of estimated accrued research and development expenses include:

        We base our expenses related to clinical studies on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with multiple CROs that conduct and manage clinical studies on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. There may be instances in which payments made to our vendors will exceed the level of services provided and result in a prepayment of the clinical expense. Payments under some of these contracts depend on factors such as the successful enrollment of subjects and the completion of clinical trial milestones. In accruing service fees, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed, enrollment of subjects, number of sites activated and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the

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level of effort varies from our estimate, we adjust the accrued liability or prepaid expense accordingly. Although we do not expect our estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, our understanding of the status and timing of services performed relative to the actual status and timing of services performed may vary and may result in our reporting amounts that are too high or too low in any particular period. Based on historical experience, actual results have not been materially different from our estimates. As of December 31, 2019, we did not have any ongoing clinical trials.

Warrant Liability

        We account for warrants to purchase common stock in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity. ASC 480 requires that a financial instrument, other than an outstanding share, that, at inception, is indexed to an obligation to repurchase the issuer's equity shares, regardless of the timing or the probability of the redemption feature and may require the issuer to settle the obligation by transferring assets classified as a liability. We measure the fair value of our warrant liability using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with changes in fair value recognized as increases or reductions to other income (expense) in the statement of operations.

        In connection with the completion of our initial public offering in May 2014, the warrants to purchase shares of Series A-1 and Series A-2 preferred stock expired unexercised and the warrants to purchase shares of Series C preferred stock automatically converted into warrants to purchase shares of common stock. Prior to January 1, 2019, warrants with non-standard anti-dilution provisions (referred to as down round protection) were classified as liabilities and re-measured each reporting period. On January 1, 2019, we adopted the provisions of Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017-11 Earnings Per Share (Topic 260); Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480); Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): (Part 1) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, (Part II) Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Non-controlling Interests with a Scope Exception, which indicates that a down round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether an investment is indexed to an entity's own stock. We used a modified retrospective approach to adoption, which does not restate our financial statements as of the prior year end (December 31, 2018). The cumulative effect of adoption of ASU 2017-11 resulted in an adjustment to accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2019 of $0.2 million with a corresponding adjustment to additional paid-in capital. Warrants to purchase 62,505 shares of common stock at $6.00 per share expired on December 14, 2019, and none of these warrants were outstanding as of December 31, 2019.

        The warrants issued in connection with our debt financing completed in February 2015 are classified as a component of stockholders' equity. The value of such warrants was determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. As of December 31, 2019, there were outstanding 180,274 warrants to purchase common stock at $5.89 per share related to this debt financing. These warrants expire on February 24, 2020.

        As part of the February 2020 Perceptive Credit Agreement, we issued Perceptive warrants to purchase 1,400,000 shares of Agile common stock. The per share exercise price for 700,000 shares is $3.74, which is equal to the 5-day volume weighted average exercise price ("5 Day VWAP") as of the trading day immediately prior to closing. The per share exercise price for the remaining 700,000 shares of our common stock is $4.67, which is 1.25 times the 5 Day VWAP.

Stock-Based Compensation

        We account for stock-based compensation under ASC 718, Accounting for Stock Based Compensation, under which compensation expense is generally recognized over the vesting period of the award. Determining the amount of stock-based compensation to be required requires us to develop estimates of fair values of stock options as of the grant date.

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        We account for stock-based compensation by measuring and recognizing expense for all stock-based payments made to employees and directors based on estimated grant date fair values. We use the straight-line method to allocate compensation cost to reporting periods over each optionee's requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. We estimate the fair value of our stock-based awards to employees and directors using the Black-Scholes option valuation model, or Black-Scholes model. The Black-Scholes model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including the expected stock price volatility, the calculation of expected term and the fair value of the underlying common stock on the date of grant, among other inputs. The risk-free interest rate was determined with the implied yield currently available for zero-coupon U.S. government issues with a remaining term approximating the expected life of the options.

        We also award restricted stock units ("RSUs") to employees and our board of directors (the "Board"). RSUs are generally subject to forfeiture if employment terminates prior to the completion of the vesting restrictions. We expense the cost of the RSUs, which is determined to be the fair market value of the shares of common stock underlying the RSUs at the date of grant, ratably over the period during which the vesting restrictions lapse. Cost associated with performance-based restricted stock units with a performance condition which affects the vesting is recognized only if the performance condition is probable of being satisfied.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

 
  Year ended December 31,    
 
 
  2019   2018   Change  
 
   
  (In thousands)
   
 

Operating expenses:

                   

Research and development

  $ 9,858   $ 9,777   $ 81  

General and administrative

    9,000     8,739     261  

Restructuring costs

        1,019     (1,019 )

Total operating expenses

    18,858     19,535     (677 )

Other income (expense)

                   

Interest income

    252     366     (114 )

Interest expense

        (1,116 )   1,116  

Change in fair value of warrants

        29     (29 )

Total other income (expense), net

    252     (721 )   973  

Loss before benefit from income taxes

   
(18,606

)
 
(20,256

)
 
1,650
 

Benefit from income taxes

        477     (477 )

Net loss

  $ (18,606 ) $ (19,779 ) $ 1,173  

        Research and development expenses.    Research and development expenses increased by $0.1 million, or 0.8%, from $9.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $9.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This overall increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to the following:

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        General and administrative expenses.    General and administrative expenses increased by $0.3 million, or 3.0%, from $8.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $9.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This overall increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to the following:

        Restructuring costs.    In June 2018, we announced a reduction in our workforce, which resulted in the termination of several employees primarily from our commercial and clinical teams, representing approximately thirty percent of our employees. This workforce reduction, along with other reductions in planned operating expenses was designed to preserve cash while we pursued formal dispute resolution with the FDA for Twirla and as we determine the regulatory path forward for the resubmission of our NDA for Twirla. In addition, in June 2018, we also announced that we had adopted a retention plan to provide (i) cash retention payments to be made to all remaining employees in order to induce such employees to remain employed by us through December 31, 2018 and (ii) stock option grants to all remaining employees in order to induce such employees to remain employed by us through December 31, 2019. Restructuring costs of $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 represent $0.4 million of severance-related costs and $0.6 million of costs related to the accrual of the retention bonus.

        Interest income.    Interest income comprises interest income earned on cash and cash equivalents.

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        Interest expense.    Interest expense was primarily attributable to our term loan with Hercules for the year ended December 31, 2018. Interest expense also includes the amortization of the discount associated with allocating value to the common stock warrants issued to Hercules, the amortization of the deferred financing costs associated with the term loan and the accrual of the final payment due to Hercules. We had no interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2019 as the Hercules loan was paid in full in 2018.

        Change in fair value of warrants.    Prior to our adoption of Accounting Standards Update, or ASU 2017-1, on January 1, 2019 (See Note 2 to the financial statements), certain of our warrants to purchase shares of our common stock were recorded at fair value and were subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date. These liabilities are re-measured at each balance sheet date with the corresponding charge to earnings recorded within change in fair value of warrant liability. The fair value of the common stock warrants with non-standard anti-dilution provisions are determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model which incorporates a number of assumptions and judgments to estimate the fair value of these warrants including the fair value per share of the underlying stock, the remaining contractual term of the warrants, risk-free interest rate, expected dividend yield, credit spread and expected volatility of the price of the underlying stock. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we reported income of $29 thousand related to the decrease in the fair value of the warrants.

        Benefit from income taxes.    For the years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, we received $0.0 million and $0.5 million, respectively, from the sale of New Jersey state Net Operating Loss Carryovers, or NOLs, as part of the Technology and Business Tax Certificate Program, or the Program. The Program enables approved biotechnology companies to sell their unused NOLs and unused Research and Development Tax Credits for at least 80% of the value of the tax benefits to unaffiliated, profitable corporate taxpayers in the State of New Jersey. The New Jersey Economic Development Authority and the New Jersey Department of the Treasury's Division of Taxation administer the Program. We have reached the maximum lifetime benefit of $15.0 million under the Program and are no longer eligible to participate in the Program.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017

 
  Year ended December 31,    
 
 
  2018   2017   Change  
 
   
  (In thousands)
   
 

Operating expenses:

                   

Research and development

  $ 9,777   $ 14,428   $ (4,651 )

General and administrative

    8,739     12,383     (3,644 )

Restructuring costs

    1,019         1,019  

Total operating expenses

    19,535     26,811     (7,276 )

Other income (expense)

                   

Interest income

    366     282     84  

Interest expense

    (1,116 )   (1,918 )   802  

Change in fair value of warrants

    29     143     (114 )

Total other income (expense), net

    (721 )   (1,493 )   772  

Loss before benefit from income taxes

    (20,256 )   (28,304 )   8,048  

Benefit from income taxes

    477         477  

Net loss

  $ (19,779 ) $ (28,304 ) $ 8,525  

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        Research and development expenses.    Research and development expenses decreased by $4.6 million, or 32%, from $14.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 to $9.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This overall decrease in research and development expenses was primarily due to the following:

        General and administrative expenses.    General and administrative expenses decreased by 3.7 million, or 29%, from $12.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 to $8.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This decrease in general and administrative expense was primarily due to the following:

        Restructuring costs.    In June 2018, we announced a reduction in our workforce, which resulted in the termination of several employees primarily from our commercial and clinical teams, representing approximately thirty percent of our employees. This workforce reduction, along with other reductions in planned operating expenses was designed to preserve cash while we pursued formal dispute resolution with the FDA for Twirla and as we determine the regulatory path forward for the resubmission of our NDA for Twirla. In addition, in June 2018, we also announced that we had adopted a retention plan to provide (i) cash retention payments to be made to all remaining employees in order to induce such employees to remain employed by us through December 31, 2018 and (ii) stock option grants to all remaining employees in order to induce such employees to remain employed by us through December 31, 2019. Restructuring costs of $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018

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represent $0.4 million of severance-related costs and $0.6 million of costs related to the accrual of the retention bonus.

        Interest income.    Interest income comprises interest income earned on cash and cash equivalents.

        Interest expense.    Interest expense is primarily attributable to our term loan with Hercules for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Interest expense also includes the amortization of the discount associated with allocating value to the common stock warrants issued to Hercules, the amortization of the deferred financing costs associated with the term loan and the accrual of the final payment due to Hercules. Interest expense decreased by $0.8 million, or 42% from $1.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 to $1.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This decrease is primarily the result of a decrease in the principal outstanding under our term loan with Hercules for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The term loan with Hercules was paid off on December 1, 2018 and accordingly, we expect no interest expense with respect to the Hercules loan in 2019.

        Change in fair value of warrants.    Certain of our warrants to purchase shares of our common stock are recorded at fair value and are subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date. These liabilities are re-measured at each balance sheet date with the corresponding charge to earnings recorded within change in fair value of warrant liability. The fair value of the common stock warrants with non-standard anti-dilution provisions are determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model which incorporates a number of assumptions and judgments to estimate the fair value of these warrants including the fair value per share of the underlying stock, the remaining contractual term of the warrants, risk-free interest rate, expected dividend yield, credit spread and expected volatility of the price of the underlying stock. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we reported income of $29 thousand related to the decrease in the fair value of the warrants as compared to income of $143 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2017.

        Benefit from income taxes.    For the year ended December 31, 2018, we received $0.5 million from the sale of New Jersey state Net Operating Loss Carryovers, or NOLs, as part of the Technology and Business Tax Certificate Program, or the Program. We did not receive any payments under the Program during the year ended December 31, 2017. The Program enables approved biotechnology companies to sell their unused NOLs and unused Research and Development Tax Credits for at least 80% of the value of the tax benefits to unaffiliated, profitable corporate taxpayers in the State of New Jersey. The New Jersey Economic Development Authority and the New Jersey Department of the Treasury's Division of Taxation administer the Program. We have reached the maximum lifetime benefit of $15.0 million under the Program and are no longer eligible to participate in the Program.

Net Operating Losses and Tax Carryforwards

        As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately $231.5 million of federal and $92.4 million of state net operating loss carryforwards. We also potentially have federal and state research and development tax credits which would offset future taxable income. We have not completed a study to assess whether an ownership change has occurred, or whether there have been multiple ownership changes since our inception, due to the significant costs and complexities associated with such studies. Accordingly, our ability to utilize the aforementioned carryforwards may be limited. Additionally, for federal net operating losses generated prior to 2018, U.S. tax laws limit the time during which these carryforwards may be utilized against future taxes. As a result, we may not be able to take full advantage of these carryforwards for federal and state tax purposes. As of December 31, 2019, all of our net operating losses were fully offset by a valuation allowance.

        On December 22, 2017, the United States Congress and the Administration approved a bill reforming the US corporate income tax code which reduced our corporate tax rate from 34% to 21%

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effective January 1, 2018. The carrying value of our deferred tax assets is also determined by the enacted US corporate income tax rate. Consequently, any changes in the US corporate income tax rate will impact the carrying value of our deferred tax assets. Under the new corporate income tax rate of 21%, deferred income tax assets decreased by $26.5 million with a corresponding decrease to the valuation allowance. There was no net effect of the tax reform enactment on financial statements.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

        In January 2019, we entered into the 2019 ATM Agreement under which we were authorized to issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $10.0 million from time to time. We paid a commission of 3% of the gross proceeds from the sales of our common stock under the 2019 ATM Agreement. In the year ended December 31, 2019, we sold 1,801,528 shares of common stock under the 2019 ATM Agreement, resulting in net proceeds of approximately $2.5 million. We terminated the 2019 ATM Agreement on July 31, 2019.

        In March 2019, we completed a private placement of 8,426,750 shares of common stock at $0.93 per share. Proceeds from our private placement, net of offering costs were approximately $7.8 million.

        In August 2019, we completed a public offering of 14,526,315 shares of our common stock at a price of $0.95 per share. Proceeds from the public offering, net of underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses were approximately $12.7 million.

        In November 2019, we entered into the second 2019 ATM Agreement under which we were authorized to issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $20.0 million from time to time. We paid a commission of 3% of the gross proceeds from the sales of our common stock under the second 2019 ATM Agreement. In the year ended December 31, 2019, we sold 10,440,908 shares of common stock under the second 2019 ATM Agreement, representing all the capacity available, resulting in net proceeds of approximately $19.3 million.

        At December 31, 2019, we had cash and cash equivalents totaling $34.5 million. We invest our cash equivalents in short-term highly liquid, interest-bearing investment-grade and government securities in order to preserve principal.

        The following table sets forth the primary sources and uses of cash for the periods indicated:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2019   2018   2017  
 
   
  (In thousands)
   
 

Net cash used in operating activities

  $ (15,689 ) $ (16,895 ) $ (24,560 )

Net cash used in investing activities

    (98 )   (318 )   (1,313 )

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    42,415     (10,888 )   13,075  

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

  $ 26,628   $ (28,101 ) $ (12,798 )

Operating Activities

        We have incurred significant costs in the area of research and development, including CRO fees, manufacturing, regulatory and other clinical trial costs, as Twirla was being developed. Net cash used in operating activities was $15.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 and consisted of a net loss of $18.6 million and an increase in prepaid expenses of $0.2 million, which was offset by non-cash stock-based compensation expense of $1.8 million and depreciation and amortization of $0.2 million as well as an increase in accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities of $1.1 million which reflects increased commercial development and commercial manufacturing expenses related to the initialization of pre-commercialization activities for Twirla. Net cash used in operating activities was $16.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 and consisted of a net loss of $19.8 million which

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was offset, in part, by non-cash stock-based compensation expense of $3.6 million and non-cash interest expense of $0.3 million as well as a decrease in accounts payable and accrued liabilities of $1.2 million which reflects higher manufacturing commercialization expenses and the accrued loan fee which were both paid in 2018. Net cash used in operating activities was $24.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 and consisted of a net loss of $28.3 million which was offset, in part, by non-cash compensation and non-cash interest expense of $4.3 million as well as a decrease in prepaid clinical trial costs of $1.8 million. Cash used in operations in 2018 was offset, in part, by the proceeds received from the sale of New Jersey NOLs.

Investing Activities

        Net cash used in investing activities for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 was $0.1 million, $0.3 million and $1.3 million, respectively. Cash used in investing activities for these years primarily represents the acquisition of equipment to be used in the commercialization of Twirla.

Financing Activities

        Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $42.4 million which primarily represented net proceeds of $7.8 million received from the issuance of 8,426,750 shares of our common stock in a private placement, net proceeds of $12.7 million from the sale of 14,526,315 shares of common stock through a public offering, and net proceeds of approximately $21.8 million from the sale of a total of 12,242,436 shares of our common stock through two at-the-market, or ATM, sales programs. Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $10.9 million which represented principal payments under the Hercules Loan Agreement which began on February 1, 2017 and were completed on December 1, 2018. Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $13.1 million which included net proceeds of $18.5 million received from the sale of 5,333,334 shares of common stock, offset, in part, by principal payments of $5.6 million under the Hercules Loan Agreement, which began on February 1, 2017.

Funding Requirements and Other Liquidity Matters

        We believe that our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019, along with the proceeds of the Perceptive Credit Agreement that we have received to date, will be sufficient to meet our projected operating requirements through 2020. We will require additional capital to fund our operating needs beyond 2020, including, among other items, the commercialization of Twirla, and advancing the development of our other potential product candidates.

        We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we:

        We may also need to raise additional funds sooner if we choose to accelerate components of our commercial plan or we encounter any unforeseen events that affect our current business plan, or we may choose to raise additional funds to provide us with additional working capital. Adequate additional

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funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when needed or on attractive terms or are unable to enter into strategic collaborations, we then may be unable to successfully commercialize Twirla and may also be required to further cut operating costs, forgo future development and other opportunities or even terminate our operations, which may involve seeking bankruptcy protection. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with such developments, including, among other things, manufacturing scale up, we are unable to estimate the amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenses associated with completing the commercialization of Twirla. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

        Except for the remaining tranche under the Perceptive Credit Agreement, which is contingent upon achieving certain revenue milestones, we do not have any committed external source of funds. Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial cash flows from product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements.

Going Concern

        As of December 31, 2019, we had cash and cash equivalents of $34.5 million. Additionally, in February 2020, we entered into the Perceptive Credit Agreement. A first tranche of $5 million was funded on execution of the agreement. A second tranche of $15 million was funded as a result of the approval of Twirla by the FDA (see Note 15). We believe that our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019 along with the proceeds of the Perceptive Credit Agreement we have received to date, will be sufficient to meet our projected operating requirements through the end of 2020. We will require additional capital to fund our operating needs beyond 2020, which we expect primarily will consist of commercializing Twirla, and exploring the advancement of our existing pipeline and its possible expansion through business development activities.

        Our future success depends on our ability to raise additional capital and/or implement various strategic alternatives. We continue to analyze strategic and financing alternatives, potential asset sales as well as mergers and acquisitions. We cannot be certain that these initiatives or raising additional capital, whether through selling additional debt or equity securities or obtaining a line of credit or other loan, will be available to us or, if available, will be on terms acceptable to us. If we issue additional securities to raise funds, whether through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, or any combination thereof, these securities may have rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those of our common stock, and our current shareholders may experience dilution. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with pharmaceutical partners, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates, including Twirla, or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to obtain funds when needed or on acceptable terms, we may

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be required to curtail our current development programs, cut operating costs, forego future development and other opportunities and may need to seek bankruptcy protection.

        The financial statements as of December 31, 2019 have been prepared under the assumption that we will continue as a going concern for the next 12 months following the date this Annual Report on Form 10-K is filed. Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon our uncertain ability to obtain additional capital, reduce expenditures and/or execute on our business plan and successfully launch Twirla. The audited financial statements as of December 31, 2019 do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

        The following table summarizes our contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2019 that will affect our future liquidity:

 
  Total   Less than
1 year
  1 - 3 years   3 - 5 years   More than
5 years
 
 
   
   
  (In thousands)
   
   
 

Operating lease

    191     191              

Total

  $ 191   $ 191   $   $   $  

        Our operating lease commitment relates to our lease of office space in Princeton, New Jersey. In August 2015, we renewed this lease with the new term to expire in November 2020. We are currently seeking new facilities or considering expanding existing facilities as we consider adding employees, and we believe that suitable additional or substitute space will be available as needed to accommodate any such expansion of our operations.

Shelf Registration Statements

        On November 2, 2018, we filed a universal shelf registration statement with the SEC for the issuance of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, rights, debt securities and units up to an aggregate amount of $100.0 million, which we refer to as the 2018 Shelf Registration Statement. On November 14, 2018, the 2018 Shelf Registration Statement was declared effective by the SEC.

        On January 23, 2019, we filed a prospectus supplement to our 2018 Shelf Registration Statement registering an at-the-market offering program we entered into for the sale of up to $10.0 million of shares of our common stock. In the year ended December 31, 2019, we sold a total of 1,801,528 shares of our common stock under this ATM program resulting in net proceeds of approximately $2.5 million. We terminated this at-the-market offering program on July 31, 2019.

        In August 2019, we filed a prospectus supplement to our 2018 Shelf Registration Statement registering a public offering of 14,526,315 shares of common stock at a price of $0.95 per share. Proceeds from the public offering, net of underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses, were approximately $12.7 million.

        On November 8, 2019, we filed a prospectus supplement to our 2018 Shelf Registration Statement registering an at-the-market offering program we entered into for the sale of up to $20.0 million of shares of our common stock. In the year ended December 31, 2019, we sold a total of 10,440,908 shares of our common stock under this ATM program, representing all the capacity, resulting in net proceeds of approximately $19.3 million.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

        See Note 2 to our financial statements that discusses new accounting pronouncements.

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Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

        We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined under SEC rules, such as relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, which are often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, established for the purpose of facilitating financing transactions that are not required to be reflected on our balance sheets.

Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Interest Rate Risk

        We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk is the risk of change in fair value of a financial instrument due to changes in interest rates, equity prices, financing, exchange rates or other factors. These market risks are principally limited to interest rate fluctuations.

        We had cash and cash equivalents of $34.5 million and $7.8 million at December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively consisting primarily of funds in cash and money market accounts. The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve principal and liquidity while maximizing income without significantly increasing risk. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes. Due to the short-term nature of our investment portfolio, we do not believe an immediate 10.0% increase in interest rates would have a material effect on the fair market value of our portfolio, and accordingly we do not expect our operating results or cash flows to be materially affected by a sudden change in market interest rates.

        Our results of operations and cash flows were subject to fluctuations due to changes in interest rates, principally in connection with our loan agreement with Hercules (through November 30, 2018) and interest income on cash balances. We do not believe we are materially exposed to changes in interest rates. We do not currently use interest rate derivative instruments to manage exposure to interest rate changes. Based on average invested cash of $14.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, a 1% increase or decrease in interest rates would have increased or decreased interest income by $148,000 for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Inflation Risk

        Inflation generally affects us by increasing our cost of labor and pricing of contracts and agreements. We do not believe that inflation had a material effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations during the year ended December 31, 2019.

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Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Agile Therapeutics, Inc.
Index to Financial Statements

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

    101  

Balance Sheets

    102  

Statements of Operations

    103  

Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity

    104  

Statements of Cash Flows

    105  

Notes to Financial Statements

    106  

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the stockholders and the board of directors of Agile Therapeutics, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

        We have audited the accompanying balance sheets of Agile Therapeutics, Inc. (the "Company") as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the related statements of operations, statements of changes in stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2019, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2019, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

The Company's Ability to Continue as a Going Concern

        The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 1 to the financial statements, the Company has suffered recurring losses from operations, requires additional capital to fund its commercialization activities and has stated that substantial doubt exists about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. Management's evaluation of the events and conditions and management's plans regarding these matters are also described in Note 1. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Basis for Opinion

        These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the US federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

        We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

        Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2010.
Iselin, New Jersey
February 20, 2020

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Agile Therapeutics, Inc.

Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except par value and share data)

 
  December 31,  
 
  2019   2018  

Assets

             

Current assets:

             

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 34,479   $ 7,851  

Prepaid expenses

    840     607  

Total current assets

    35,319     8,458  

Property and equipment, net

    14,044     13,916  

Right of use and other assets

    177     18  

Total assets

  $ 49,540   $ 22,392  

Liabilities and stockholders' equity

             

Current liabilities:

             

Accounts payable

  $ 1,819   $ 875  

Accrued expenses

    1,804     1,343  

Lease payable, curent portion

    172      

Total current liabilities

    3,795     2,218  

Total liabilities

   
3,795
   
2,218
 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 13)

             

Stockholders' equity

   
 
   
 
 

Common stock, $.0001 par value, 150,000,000 shares authorized, 69,810,305 and 34,377,329 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively

    7     3  

Additional paid-in capital

    306,108     261,722  

Accumulated deficit

    (260,370 )   (241,551 )

Total stockholders' equity

    45,745     20,174  

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

  $ 49,540   $ 22,392  

   

See accompanying notes.

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Agile Therapeutics, Inc.

Statements of Operations

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2019   2018   2017  

Operating expenses:

                   

Research and development

  $ 9,858   $ 9,777   $ 14,428  

General and administrative

    9,000     8,739     12,383  

Restructuring costs

        1,019      

Total operating expenses

    18,858     19,535     26,811  

Loss from operations

    (18,858 )   (19,535 )   (26,811 )

Other income (expense)

                   

Interest income

    252     366     282  

Interest expense

        (1,116 )   (1,918 )

Change in fair value of warrants

        29     143  

Total other income (expense), net

    252     (721 )   (1,493 )

Loss before benefit from income taxes

    (18,606 )   (20,256 )   (28,304 )

Benefit from income taxes

        477      

Net loss

  $ (18,606 ) $ (19,779 ) $ (28,304 )

Net loss per share (basic and diluted)

  $ (0.38 ) $ (0.58 ) $ (0.91 )

Weighted-average common shares (basic and diluted)

    49,432,487     34,315,931     30,940,831  

   

See accompanying notes.

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Agile Therapeutics, Inc.

Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity

(in thousands, except share data)

 
  Common Stock    
   
   
 
 
  Number of
Shares
  Amount   Additional
Paid-in
Capital
  Accumulated
Deficit
  Net
Stockholders'
Equity
 

Balance December 31, 2016

    28,759,731   $ 3   $ 235,754   $ (193,468 ) $ 42,289  

Share-based compensation—stock options and RSUs

            3,651         3,651  

Vesting of RSUs

    16,667                  

Issuance of common stock in public offering, net of expenses

    5,333,334         18,535         18,535  

Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options

    76,610         152         152  

Net loss

                (28,304 )   (28,304 )

Balance December 31, 2017

    34,186,342   $ 3   $ 258,092   $ (221,772 ) $ 36,323  

Share-based compensation—stock options and RSUs

            3,630         3,630  

Vesting of RSUs

    190,987                  

Net loss

                (19,779 )   (19,779 )

Balance December 31, 2018

    34,377,329   $ 3   $ 261,722   $ (241,551 ) $ 20,174  

Adjustment to derivitive liabilities upon adoption of ASU 2017-11

            213     (213 )    

Share-based compensation— stock options and RSUs

            1,762         1,762  

Issuance of common stock in private placement, net of expenses

    8,426,750     1     7,809         7,810  

Issuance of common stock pursuant to at-the-market stock sales, net of expenses

    12,242,436     1     21,753         21,754  

Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options

    92,271           164         164  

Proceeds from issuance of common stock in public offering, net of expenses

    14,526,315     2     12,685         12,687  

Vesting of RSUs

    145,204                  

Net loss

                (18,606 )   (18,606 )

Balance December 31, 2019

    69,810,305   $ 7   $ 306,108   $ (260,370 ) $ 45,745  

   

See accompanying notes.

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Agile Therapeutics, Inc.

Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2019   2018   2017  

Cash flows from operating activities:

                   

Net loss

  $ (18,606 ) $ (19,779 ) $ (28,304 )

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

                   

Depreciation

    18     23     23  

Amortization

    145          

Noncash stock based compensation

    1,762     3,630     3,651  

Noncash interest

        282     667  

Change in fair value of warrants

        (29 )   (143 )

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

                   

Prepaid expenses and other assets

    (233 )   155     2,006  

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

    1,377     (1,177 )   (2,460 )

Lease liability

    (152 )        

Net cash used in operating activities

    (15,689 )   (16,895 )   (24,560 )

Cash flows from investing activities:

                   

Acquisition of property and equipment

    (98 )   (318 )   (1,313 )

Net cash used in investing activities

    (98 )   (318 )   (1,313 )

Cash flows from financing activities:

   
 
   
 
   
 
 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net of offering costs

    42,251         18,535  

Principal payments of long-term debt

        (10,888 )   (5,612 )

Proceeds from exercise of stock options

    164         152  

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    42,415     (10,888 )   13,075  

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

    26,628     (28,101 )   (12,798 )

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year

    7,851     35,952     48,750  

Cash and cash equivalents, end of year

  $ 34,479   $ 7,851   $ 35,952  

Supplemental disclosure of noncash financing activities

                   

Supplemental cash flow information

                   

Interest paid during the year

  $   $ 1,370   $ 1,295  

Cash paid for income taxes

  $   $   $  

Non-cash transactions

                   

Property and equipment purchases included in accounts payable          

  $ 49   $   $ 242  

   

See accompanying notes.

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Agile Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Financial Statements

December 31, 2019

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

1. Organization and Description of Business

Nature of Operations

        Agile Therapeutics, Inc. ("Agile" or the "Company") was incorporated in Delaware on December 22, 1997. Agile is a women's healthcare company dedicated to fulfilling the unmet health needs of today's women. The Company's activities since inception have consisted principally of raising capital and performing research and development, including development of the Company's lead product candidate. The Company is headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey.

        The Company's sole approved product, Twirla®, also known as AG200-15, is a once-weekly prescription contraceptive patch that received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA in February 2020. Substantially all of the Company's resources are currently dedicated to commercializing Twirla in the United States. The Company has not generated product revenue to date and is subject to a number of risks similar to those of other early stage companies, including, but not limited to, dependence on key individuals, the difficulties and uncertainties inherent in the development of commercially usable products, market acceptance of products, protection of proprietary technology, the potential need to obtain additional capital necessary to fund the development of its products, competition from larger companies and compliance with the FDA and other government regulations. If the Company does not successfully commercialize any product candidates, it will be unable to generate recurring product revenue or achieve profitability. The Company has incurred operating losses and negative cash flows from operating activities each year since inception. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had an accumulated deficit of approximately $260 million. The Company expects to continue to incur net losses into the foreseeable future

        The Company has financed its operations to date primarily through the issuance and sale of its common stock in both public and private offerings (see Note 9), private placements of its convertible preferred stock, venture loans, and non-dilutive grant funding.

Going Concern

        As of December 31, 2019, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $34.5 million. Additionally, in February 2020, the Company entered into a Credit Agreement and Guaranty with Perceptive Credit Holdings III, LP, or the Perceptive Credit Agreement. A first tranche of $5.0 million was funded on execution of the Perceptive Credit Agreement. A second tranche of $15.0 million was funded as a result of the approval of Twirla by the FDA (see Note 15). The Company believes that its cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019 along with the proceeds of the Perceptive Credit Agreement received by the date of this report will be sufficient to meet its projected operating requirements through the end of 2020. The Company will require additional capital to fund its operating needs beyond 2020, which primarily will include commercializing Twirla, and exploring the advancement of its existing pipeline and its possible expansion through business development activities.

        The Company anticipates it will continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future and the Company's ability to continue operations beyond 2020 will depend on its ability to obtain additional capital, as to which no assurances can be given. There can be no assurance that any financing by the Company can be realized by the Company, or if realized, what the terms of any such financing may be, or that any amount that the Company is able to raise will be adequate. Based upon the foregoing,

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Agile Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Financial Statements (Continued)

December 31, 2019

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

1. Organization and Description of Business (Continued)

management has concluded that there is substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern through the 12 months following the date on which this Annual Report on Form 10-K is filed.

        The Company continues to analyze various alternatives, including strategic and refinancing alternatives, asset sales and mergers and acquisitions. The Company's future success depends on its ability to raise additional capital and/or implement the various strategic alternatives discussed above. The Company cannot be certain that these initiatives or raising additional capital, whether through selling additional debt or equity securities or obtaining a line of credit or other loan, will be available to it or, if available, will be on terms acceptable to the Company. If the Company issues additional securities to raise funds, these securities may have rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those of its common stock, and the Company's current stockholders will experience dilution. If the Company is unable to obtain funds when needed or on acceptable terms, the Company then may be unable to complete the commercialization of Twirla, and may also be required to cut operating costs, and forego future development and other opportunities.

        The audited financial statements as of December 31, 2019 have been prepared under the assumption that the Company will continue as a going concern for the next 12 months. The Company's ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon its uncertain ability to obtain additional capital, reduce expenditures and/or execute on its business plan and successfully launch Twirla. The audited financial statements as of December 31, 2019 do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. If the Company is unable to continue as a going concern, it may have to liquidate its assets and may receive less than the value at which those assets are carried on the financial statements.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Polices

Basis of Presentation

        The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles ("U.S. GAAP") and include all adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of the Company's financial position for the periods presented.

Use of Estimates

        The preparation of the Company's financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. The Company bases its estimates and judgments on historical experience and various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances. The amounts of assets and liabilities reported in the Company's balance sheets and the amounts of expenses reported for each of the periods presented are affected by estimates and assumptions, which are used for, but not limited to, the accounting for common stock warrants, stock-based compensation, income taxes, and accounting for research and development costs. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

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Notes to Financial Statements (Continued)

December 31, 2019

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Polices (Continued)

Risks and Uncertainties

        While Twirla has been approved by the FDA, other potential product candidates developed by the Company will require approval from the FDA prior to commercial sales. There can be no assurance that the Company's other product candidates will receive the required approval. If the Company is denied approval or such approval is delayed, or is unable to obtain the necessary financing to complete development and approval, there could be a material adverse impact on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

        The Company considers all highly-liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. All cash and cash equivalents are held in United States financial institutions. Cash and cash equivalents include money market funds that invest primarily in commercial paper and U.S. government and U.S. government agency obligations.

        The Company maintains balances with financial institutions in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation limit.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

        In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 825, Financial Instruments, disclosures of fair value information about financial instruments are required, whether or not recognized in the balance sheet, for which it is practicable to estimate that value. Cash and cash equivalents are carried at fair value (see Note 3).

        Other financial instruments, including accounts payable and accrued liabilities, are carried at cost, which approximates fair value given their short-term nature.

Property and Equipment

        Property and equipment, consisting of manufacturing, office and computer equipment, is stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line, method over the estimated useful lives of the assets.

        Expenditures incurred after the fixed assets have been put into operation, such as repairs and maintenance, are charged to earnings in the period in which costs are incurred. Improvements and additions are capitalized in accordance with Company policy.

Long-Lived Assets

        In accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment, the Company's policy is to review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Management does not believe that there has been any impairment of the carrying value of any long-lived assets as of December 31, 2019.

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Notes to Financial Statements (Continued)

December 31, 2019

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Polices (Continued)

Research and Development Expense

        Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development expense consists primarily of costs related to personnel, including salaries and other personnel-related expenses, expenses related to manufacturing, clinical trial expenses, consulting fees and support services used in drug development. All research and development costs are charged to operations as incurred in accordance with ASC 730, Research and Development.

        In certain circumstances, the Company is required to make advance payments to vendors for goods or services that will be received in the future for use in research and development activities. In such circumstances, the advance payments are deferred and are expensed when the activity has been performed or when the goods have been received.

Deferred Financing Costs

        Costs directly attributable to the Company's term loan (see Note 8) are deferred and reported as a reduction of the related term loan. These costs represent legal fees and other costs related to the term loan and are being amortized over the term of the loan. Amortization of deferred financing costs charged to interest expense was approximately $0, $133 and $239 for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Concentrations of Credit Risk

        Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. All cash and cash equivalents are held in business checking and money market accounts in United States financial institutions the balances of which exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not recognized any losses from credit risks on such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risks on cash and cash equivalents. The Company has no financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk of accounting loss.

Warrants

        The Company accounts for its warrants to purchase redeemable convertible stock in accordance with ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity. ASC 480 requires that a financial instrument, other than an outstanding share, that, at inception, is indexed to an obligation to repurchase the issuer's equity shares, regardless of the timing or the probability of the redemption feature and may require the issuer to settle the obligation by transferring assets be classified as a liability. The Company measures the fair value of its warrant liability using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with changes in fair value recognized as increases or reductions to other income (expense) in the statement of operations.

        In connection with the completion of the Company's initial public offering in May 2014, the warrants to purchase shares of Series A-1 and Series A-2 preferred stock expired unexercised and the warrants to purchase shares of Series C preferred stock automatically converted into warrants to purchase shares of common stock. Warrants with non-standard anti-dilution provisions (referred to as down round protection) are classified as liabilities and re-measured each reporting period. On

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Agile Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Financial Statements (Continued)

December 31, 2019

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Polices (Continued)

January 1, 2019, the Company adopted the provisions of Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017-11 Earnings Per Share (Topic 260); Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480); Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): (Part 1) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, (Part II) Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Non-controlling Interests with a Scope Exception, which indicates that a down round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether an investment is indexed to an entity's own stock. The Company used a modified retrospective approach to adoption, which does not restate its financial statements as of the prior year end (December 31, 2018). The cumulative effect of adoption of ASU 2017-11 resulted in an adjustment to accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2019 of $213 with a corresponding adjustment to additional paid-in capital. Warrants to purchase 62,505 shares of common stock at $6.00 per share expired on December 14, 2019, and none of these warrants are outstanding as of December 31, 2019.

        The warrants issued in connection with the Company's debt financing completed in February 2015 (see Note 8) are classified as a component of stockholders' equity. The value of such warrants was determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. As of December 31, 2019, there were outstanding 180,274 warrants to purchase common stock at $5.89 per share related to this debt financing. These warrants expire on February 24, 2020.

Income Taxes

        The Company accounts for deferred taxes using the asset and liability method as specified by ASC 740, Income Taxes. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between the financial statement reporting and the tax basis of assets and liabilities, operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income taxes are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that are anticipated to be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The measurement of deferred income tax assets is reduced, if necessary, by a valuation allowance for any tax benefits which are not expected to be realized. The effect on deferred income tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the period that such tax rate changes are enacted.

        The Company has adopted the authoritative guidance on accounting for and disclosure of uncertainty in tax positions which prescribes a comprehensive model for the financial statement recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in income tax returns. The Company has no uncertain tax positions as of December 31, 2019 that qualifies for either recognition or disclosure in the financial statements under this guidance.

Stock-Based Compensation

        The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation. The Company grants stock options for a fixed number of shares to employees and non-employees with an exercise price equal to the fair value of the shares at grant date. Compensation cost is recognized for all share-based payments granted and is based on the grant-date fair value estimated using the weighted-average assumption of the Black-Scholes option pricing model based on key assumptions such as stock price, expected volatility and expected term. The Company

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Notes to Financial Statements (Continued)

December 31, 2019

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Polices (Continued)

elects to account for forfeitures when they occur. The equity instrument is not considered to be issued until the instrument vests. As a result, compensation cost is recognized over the requisite service period with an offsetting credit to additional paid-in capital.

        The Company also awards restricted stock units ("RSUs") to employees and its board of directors. RSUs are generally subject to forfeiture if employment terminates prior to the completion of the vesting restrictions. The Company expenses the cost of the RSUs, which is determined to be the fair market value of the shares of common stock underlying the RSUs at the date of grant, ratably over the period during which the vesting restrictions lapse. Cost associated with performance-based restricted stock units with a performance condition which affects the vesting is recognized only if the performance condition is probable of being satisfied.

Segment Information

        Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company views its operations and manages its business in one operating and reporting segment, which is the business of developing its transdermal patch for use in contraception.

Net Loss Per Share

        Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period determined using the treasury-stock and if-converted methods. For purposes of diluted net loss per share calculation, common stock warrants, unvested RSUs and stock options are considered to be potentially dilutive securities but are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would be anti-dilutive and therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share were the same for all periods presented.

        The following table sets forth the outstanding potentially dilutive securities that have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively, because to do so would be anti-dilutive (in common equivalent shares):

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2019   2018   2017  

Common stock warrants

    180,274     242,779     242,779  

Unvested restricted stock units

        147,554     264,361  

Common stock options

    7,192,357     5,687,901     3,805,305  

Total

    7,372,631     6,078,234     4,312,445